treasure, long concealed,
Was by three
worthy knights revealed,
Where erst a
Its ancient ruins
And found the
Grand Mysterious Word
Made known before
This article is
based upon a general familiarity with some form of the Royal Arch ritual. It is
not a study of the present-day "Royal Arch Word" nor of its symbolism; rather,
it offers one possible source for the trilingual compound word associated with
the triangle. For the purposes of this article, irrespective of the rite in
which it occurs, this is denominated the "Compound Word."
The Ineffable and
Royal Arch Masonry
occupies a unique and perhaps enviable position within the Masonic
superstructure. Existing under a variety of forms it is present in several
Masonic systems. Under the British Constitution as well as in the American York
Rite, it is considered the "completion" of the Craft ritual, while in the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (A.&A.S.R.) its "secrets" are fundamental to
the Lodge of Perfection.
A version of the
Royal Arch degree likely arose between 1737 and 1740. Although an investigation
of the origins of the degree is beyond the scope of this work, it should be
noted that all forms of the rituals likely derive from a common ancestor.
The Royal Arch is sometimes denominated "ineffable" and "sublime" in our rituals
because it concerns the nature of the Hebrew shem hameforash, or unspoken
name of God. This name was regarded as so sacred that the ancient Jews would not
pronounce it, but substituted the word adonai, "Lord."
In spite of
jurisdictional variations in the rituals, such as the dramatis personae
and the alleged historical setting, the core of the ceremony (the discovery of
the name of God) is the unifying underlying theme in all versions.
The discovery of this sacred name is based on a legend which antedates
Speculative Freemasonry by at least 1200 years and embodies traditions common to
both early Christian and Qabalistic writings.
The Scottish Rite Journal is published bimonthly by the Supreme Council, 33°, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, Washington, DC.
An Early Masonic
Version of the Legend
The Scottish Rite
inherited its version of this degree from Steven Morin's 25‑degree Rite which is
fortunately preserved in toto in the 1783 Francken Manuscript, now
owned by the Supreme Council 33°, Northern Masonic Jurisdicion.
According to the
this version of this legend, Enoch sought revelation to learn the Almighty's
true name, after which he beheld a triangular golden plate in a vision. Upon the
plate was inscribed the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, or sacred four‑letter name of God,
which he was forbidden to pronounce. Presently he seemed to be lowered
perpendicularly into the earth through nine arches into a vault where he again
beheld the same plate. In commemoration of the vision he subsequently
constructed a subterranean temple at the location of its manifestation, and
duplicated the plate encrusting it with agate. The plate was set atop a marble
pedestal and deposited in the ninth arch. Enoch was then commanded by God to
place a stone door, in which a iron ring had been set, over the first arch to
permit entry, and also to protect the treasure from the impending deluge. Enoch
also constructed two pillars, one of brass, the other of brick, and upon them
inscribed the arts and sciences to preserve this knowledge for the world. The
location and knowledge of Enoch's temple was lost following the flood.
coincidentally selected the same site for his temple and upon beginning
construction discovered the ruins and a variety of treasures. Fearing that the
antediluvian structure had been dedicated to a "false god" Solomon changed the
temple's planned location. King Solomon also constructed a secret vault beneath
the Sanctum Sanctorum which was supported by a large pillar denominated the
Pillar of Beauty as it was destined to support the Ark of the Covenant.
Some time later he
sent three Craftsmen to search the ruins for more treasures, at which time they
discovered the stone door with the iron ring. One of the three tied a rope about
his waist and was thrice lowered into the vault when, upon penetrating the ninth
arch, he beheld Enoch's gold plate which greatly astonished him. After informing
his companions of the discovery the three entered the vault by means of a rope
ladder and retrieved the treasure which they presented to King Solomon who then
created them Knights of the Royal Arch. Solomon informed them that in time they
should be made acquainted with the true pronunciation of the Divine name, and
permitted them to enter his secret vault where they encrusted the golden plate
upon the Pillar of Beauty. The name of the chamber was then changed from the
secret to the sacred vault.
Sources and Possible Origins
Three versions of
the legend can be found that pre‑date Speculative Freemasonry. A Fourth‑century
version is recorded in a work by Philostorgius, the Arian church historian,
while a late thirteenth‑century variation was recorded in the Ecclesiastical
History of Nicephorus Callistus, the Greek historian.
Masonic scholar Bernard E. Jones, in his Freemasons Book of the Royal Arch,
identifies another version based on Callistus and contained in Samuel Lee's
Orbis Miraculum, published in 1659. A portion of Lee's version follows.
When the foundations [of the Temple at Jerusalem] were a
laying, as I have said, there was a stone among the rest, to which the bottom of
the foundation was fastened, that slipt from its place, and discovered the mouth
of a cave which had been cut in rock. Now when they could not see the bottom by
reason of its depth; the Overseers of the building being desirous to have a
certain knowledge of the [sic] they tied a long rope to one of the
Labourers, and let him down: He being come to the bottom, found water in it,
that took him up to the mid‑ancles, and searching every part of that hollow
place, he found it to be four square, as far as he could conjecture by feeling.
Then returning toward the mouth of it, found a book lying there wrapped up in a
piece of thin and clean linnen. Having taken it into his hands, he signified by
the rope that they should draw him up. When he was pulled up he shews the book,
which struck them with admiration, especially seeming so fresh and untoucht as
it did, being found in so dark and obscure a hole. The Book being unfolded, did
amaze not only the Jews, but the Grecians also, holding forth even at the
beginning of it in great Letters (In the beginning was the Word, and the Word
was with God, and the Word was God.) To speak plainly, that Scripture did
manifestly contain the whole gospel....
Jones remarks that
Lee's work "give[s] the impression that the framers of the early Royal Arch ...
drew inspiration not only from its text but from its frontispiece." The
frontispiece includes a depiction of a king clothed in royal robes, crowned and
bearing a scepter opposite a Jewish High Priest in ceremonial garments, wearing
the ephod and breastplate.
versions of the legend mentioned by Lee, Philostorgius and Callistus make no
mention of Enoch's vision, the gold plate, the pillars or Solomon, the Sanctum
Sanctorum, etc., these were perhaps inspired by other traditions. The
pseudepigraphal Book of Enoch, for example, includes a series of
"dream‑visions" in which the prophet beheld the cornerstone of the earth
and the vaults and pillars of heaven.
One verse, suggestive of the Royal Arch tradition, reads "Come to me, Enoch, and
to my holy Word."
The writings of
Flavius Josephus may also have contributed to the Masonic tradition.
In his Antiquities of the Jews (Book I, Chap. II, vs. 3), he mentions
that Seth, the son of Adam "made two pillars; the one of brick, the other of
stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of
brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and
exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also to inform them that there was
another pillar of brick erected by them."
According to Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a Qabalistic legend maintained that
when King Solomon built the Temple, he constructed a deep
labyrinth under the Temple Mount, where the holy vessels could be hidden in time
of danger. Foreseeing that Jerusalem would be threatened, King Josiah ordered
that the Ark be concealed in this labyrinth, sealing it off so that it would not
be discovered by the enemy. Thus, even to this day, the Ark is hidden somewhere
under the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
Kaplan also notes,
"It is debated if it [the Ark of the Covenant] was hidden under the Holy of
Holies or in the Chamber of the Woodshed."
In a Masonic
legend remarkably similar to that referred to by Rabbi Kaplan, the Select
Master's degree explains that some time before the completion of the Temple,
Solomon King of Israel, Hiram King of Tyre, and Hiram Abif determined to make an
effort to preserve the temple treasures should some calamity befall Israel. With
a view to that end they constructed a secret vault under the Temple and placed
replicas of the treasures therein–-including an "imitation" Ark of the Covenant.
A possible Masonic
amalgam is apparent when we recall that in American York Rite rituals the Ark of
the Covenant is discovered together with the Book of the Law. Concerning
contemporary English Royal Arch rituals, the Rev. F. de Castells writes,
The R.A. Masons of to‑day assure us that when the Sojourners
found 'the Pedestal' in the Vault there was on the top a plate of gold. This is
indeed very significant, because the plate of gold was a sort of cover for the
Ark of the Covenant; and therefore although the Ark is not mentioned in the R.A.
Ritual in this connection, the statement implies that the Ark was there all the
time under the plate of gold.
It appears then,
that the American York Rite's Royal Arch ritual retains the Ark of the Covenant
legend, while the English version, like the Scottish Rite, retains the gold
Genesis vs. St.
The Scottish Rite
rituals make no use of the scroll mentioned by Philostorgius, Callistus and Lee.
In American York Rite rituals, however, the Book of the Law (Torah),
which corresponds with the scroll, is discovered within the coffer and effects
an impending anachronism. In the state of Texas, following an examination of the
Ark's contents, the Captain of the Host remarks, "Most Excellent [High Priest],
there are some characters upon the top of the box." The High Priest responds,
"You will place the cover on the box, Companion Captain of the Host."
Immediately thereafter, the ritual directs the High Priest to read John
How can the first line of the Gospel of John, a Christian text, dated ca. 98
C.E., reasonably be read from the Torah centuries before the Christian
era? Should it be employed, even ritualistically, in an Old Testament context?
If this is a carry‑over from the Philostorgius, Callistus, or Lee legends it is
understandable but is quite improper. Awareness of this problem may have
resulted in the substitution of Genesis 1:1 in many jurisdictions.
An alternative explanation for the Genesis reading in post‑1836 rituals involves
Godfrey Higgins' citation of the Callistus legend in his Anacalypsis.
Higgins merely states that the scroll read, "In the beginning, &c," which
obviously fits both passages. Ritualists familiar with Anacalypsis could
have assumed that the Genesis citation was intended.
The Triangle and
the Compound Word
Rite's triangle legend is fairly simple: the Tetragrammaton, vuvh, or
alternately its initial letter yod, is engraved on a golden plate
discovered atop "a triangular pedestal."
In the American York Rite, however, the "imitation" Ark of the Covenant
frequently rests on a pedestal, while the triangle appears on the lid of the
Ark, and within the triangle are three words in cipher.
Depending on jurisdiction, these cipher‑words (the Compound Word) are supposed
to have been the word, or key to the word of a Master Mason, lost at the death
of Hiram Abif.
The Royal Arch cipher used in the United States is actually a variation of a
Hebrew Qabalistic cipher known as aiq beker or "the Qabalah of Nine
Interestingly, both the American York and Scottish Rites preserve the triangle
and yod, tradition in another, yet similar, manner. The ring worn by
Scottish Rite 14° members bears a triangle with a yod in the center, as
does the American York Rite's Royal Arch "signet of truth," or "signet of
Zerubbabel." Figure 1 depicts the triangle appearing on the ark used in my own
Royal Arch Chapter. In the center of the triangle will be found the
The Compound Word
has appeared in several recognizable variations and in several other similar
forms, including the possible variations Zabulon and Zebulun.
These, and similar
permutations, are usually coupled with the words Jehovah and/or God.
Rev. Ron Carlson, an anti‑Mason from Minnesota, gives the Compound Word as
Jobulon, and perhaps not too surprisingly, a Past High Priest who mistakenly
thought the word was Jah‑Bow‑On proposed that it be changed to
In 1952 Walton
Hannah and Hubert Box falsely charged that the Compound Word was a pagan
amalgamation and profanation of God's name equivalent to the combinations
Jah‑Baal‑Osiris, Jesus-Moloch‑Pan, and/or Jah‑Lucifer‑Pan.
This eventually resulted in the elimination of the Compound Word from English
It must be
understood that the Compound Word, like most of the "significant words" in
Freemasonry, has undergone distortion and (d)evolution, and that the ignorance
of even high‑grade Masons has only added to the confusion of what has become a
theological debate, i.e., does the Royal Arch degree teach the worship of a
particular "Masonic" deity? And, if so, is this deity the Biblical God, or
is it the alleged grafting of Yahweh with pagan Gods?
Royal Arch rituals
typically identify the Compound Word as a trilingual name‑title of Deity. In the
United States, it is commonly claimed the Compound Word is a composite "name" in
the Assyrian (or Syriac), Chaldean and Hebrew languages, while in the Early
Grand Rite of Scotland the Compound Word was said to be "not one, but three,
being the name of the Deity in the three principal languages of antiquity, the
Hebrew, Babylonian and Egyptian."
Most American jurisdictions explain that the pronunciation of the Omnific Word
is inextricably connected with the Compound Word, which "covers" it; and that by
inserting the vowels of the latter within the Tetragrammaton the lost Word of a
Master Mason is restored.
Critics such as
Hannah and Box ignore simple explanations which have respectable
Judaeo‑Christian interpretations. The variant Jah‑Bul‑On, for example,
which was cited by the aforementioned critics, may be broken down as follows:
word is a name by which Jehovah was worshiped (Psalms 68:4).
is simply a variation of baal , lord, master or it may mean
"in or on high" (the preposition b in or on + al
The combination Jah‑Bul could therefore mean "Jehovah, [the] Lord" or
"Jehovah on high."
word is a name for God in Ancient Greek, as He revealed Himself to Moses. In the
Septuagint, an Ancient Greek version of the Old Testament, God identifies
himself with the words ego eimi ho "I Am the Being" (Exodus 3:14). The
words ho On in Greek mean "the Being," "the Eternal," or the "I AM." The
words ho On are also applied to God in Revelation 1:4, 8 and numerous
other verses as "the one who is."
Jah‑Bul‑On could mean:
1) "Jehovah, the
Lord, the I AM"
2) "Jehovah on
High: the I AM" or
3) "Jehovah on
High: The Being."
The English Royal
Arch ritual provided an altogether different approach. Rather than the
Hebrew‑based cipher‑word, the triangle commonly used in the English Royal Arch
workings includes a Hebrew letter set at each corner (Figure 2). The "mystical
lecture" of the Aldersgate ritual explains that
The characters at the angles of the [triangle] are of
exceeding importance, though it is immaterial where the combination is
commenced, as each has reference to the Deity, or some divine attribute. They
are the [aleph], the [beth], and the [lamed] of the Hebrew,
corresponding with the [A, B] and [L] of the English
Alphabet. Take the [aleph] and the [beth], they form [ab],
which is Father; take the [beth], the [aleph] and the [lamed],
they form [bal], which is Lord; take the [aleph] and the [lamed],
they form [al], which means Word; take the [lamed], the [aleph],
and the [beth], they form [lab], which signifies Heart or Spirit.
Take each combination with the whole, and it will read thus: [ab, bal],
Father, Lord; [al, bal], Word, Lord; [lab, bal],
of Hebrew letters is a qabalistic practice known as temurah.
In an interesting
study, Harry Carr noted that the outlined permutations of the Hebrew letters
does not fit the ritualistic interpretation.
While it is true that ab , means father, bal , does not
mean Lord. Brother Carr called this a "childish mis‑spelling" for baal
And indeed, combinations of the letters aleph and lamed mean
either el , God, or lo, not, as the Hebrew word for
heart is leb, rather than lab.
However this may
be, it may be noted in passing that the permutation of the three letters
comprising the Divine name in Hebrew is a practice which approaches the
beginning of the "written Qabalah," and is a subject of extreme importance.
Some Qabalistic schools maintain that a mystery is concealed within the
permutation of these letters, and that by contemplating their various forms one
may obtain enlightenment.
The letters represent a primordial Trinity, comprised of the Father, the Mother
and the Son.
Although it is almost certainly coincidental, it should be noted that the
letters of the primordial Trinity–I, H, V combined with those of their alleged
Masonic counterparts– A, B, L form IAHBVL (JAHBUL).
If the above
confused attempts to translate Hebrew were not enough, it appears that
ritualists, in typical Masonic fashion, have complicated the matter by providing
various trinities of letters. Brother Carr wrote that "the Hebrew characters at
the corners of the 'triangle' are not to be found in any of our ritual documents
until after the 'standardization' [of the English ritual] in 1834." In spite of
Bro. Carr’s valued opinion, however, there is ample evidence that three letters
were used in connection with the triangle long before this.
A pre‑1800 degree
known as the Knight of the Royal Arch, which is said to be conferred as an honor
in some American jurisdictions, makes use of "a Delta [triangular] plate of
gold, and in the middle thereof a five pointed star, on which is engraved the
letter [h, yod] and the letters I B L on the three angles of the
In the course of
the last initiated
brother is let down into [an] arch by the help of two other brethren where he
finds a pedestal with a gold Delta [triangular] plate. On it a copy of the law
and a book of the arts and sciences. Also a considerable treasure, which he
hands up to his 2 companions by means of a rope, retaining only the pedestal
with the gold plate affixed to it, after which he is hauled up by them who let
him down, having the pedestal and gold plate in his arms.
their finds, "the Grand Master addresses the 2 zealous brethren thus, 'dear
brethren, among the things you have found, is the real and true Grand Master's
Word, which was lost by the death of our respectable Grand Master, Hiram
the candidates are taught the word: “One is instructed to say I_____; the other
B_____; and the third L_____, and so alternately until everyone has completed
In the 1783
Francken Manuscript version of the Perfect Master degree we read that
following Hiram's death a triangular stone was made with the letters
I.M.B. engraved thereon, "the I. being the initial of the ancient master's word,
and M.B. the Initials of the new word."
This also finds a
parallel in the 1782 Rectified Scottish Rite's degree of Scottish Master of
Saint Andrew, where we read of "...a square polished stone [upon which is] a
triangular gold plate, bearing the sacred word JEHOVA and in the angle thereof
the three letters J\B\M\, which are the initials of three words of the preceding
We have now
encountered the following explanations for four similar sets of letters
associated with a triangle:
1) The A.B.L. (t,
c, k) of the English Royal Arch, with the permutations AB, BAL, LAB, etc.
I_____B_____L_____ of the Knight of the Royal Arch, being the "lost word."
3) The I.M.B. of
the 1783 Francken Manuscript, wherein I = the "ancient" word and M.B. =
the "new" word.
4) The J\B\M\ of
the Rectified Scottish Rite signifying the initials of the words of the Craft
Which, if any, of
these is "correct?" What was the original significance of the triangle with
In his excellent
study, Some Royal Arch Terms Examined, Roy A. Wells credits Harry Mendoza
with a remarkable discovery. By substituting Hebrew for Latin on a Christian
"Trinitarian Device" (Figure 3) the mysterious aleph, beth and
lamed on the British Royal Arch triangle are produced.
this appears, the Hebrew scriptures do not use leb as a designation for
the Divine Spirit. The Hebrew text employs Ruach Elohim, "Spirit of God,"
Ruach YHWH, "Spirit of the Yahweh," and Ruach HaKodesh, "Holy
In connection with
this Wells also included an illustration from George Smith's 1785 work, The
Use and Abuse of Free‑Masonry, which is strikingly similar to the English
Royal Arch triangle.
At each corner will be found a Hebrew letter and the triangle is obviously
intended as a Trinitarian device. I was initially puzzled to discover the name
Elijah in the center–a position logically reserved for Deity. Although
Elijah means "Yahweh is my God," I believe a better explanation may be found in
examining earlier versions of this symbol.
The earliest form
I have been able to locate is presented as Figure 5, taken from Georgius von
Welling's Opus Mago‑Cabbilisticum et Theosophicum (1760).
The words Geist (German for spirit), Iehovah and Elohim
(Hebrew, God) surround the triangle, while Eheieh (Hebrew), "I
AM," appears in the center. The engraver of Smith's frontispiece likely misread
the word Eheieh and substituted Elijah.
examination of the Hebrew letters in Figure 4 reveals that other errors may have
been made as well. For example, the letter l, lamed in Figure 4 (at the
apex of the triangle) appears to have originally been the letter n, nun .
Another illustration in von Welling's Opus (Figure 6) provides another
arrangement of the letters around the triangle. Although their arrangement
differs, the letters are again ABN. It will be noticed that an enlargement of
the detail (Figure 6‑A) resembles the triangle used in at least one Canadian
jurisdiction (Figure 7), which it inherited from England.
diagrams are said to be based on the "Rosicrucian teachings" of Johannes Baptist
van Helmont (1577‑1644), an early alchemist and scientist, who claimed to have
manufactured the elixir vitæ, the universal medicine capable of curing
all human ailments and prolonging mortal life.
Van Helmont, in turn, was influenced by Heinrich Khunrath (1560‑1605), another
alchemist, of whom Arthur Edward Waite writes, "Even for an alchemist he was of
a strange an exotic kind, and because of certain symbolical plates which are
attached to his chief work he has been connected with the Rosicrucian
Brotherhood, either as a precursor or member."
plates to which Waite refers appear in Khunrath's postumously‑published
Amphithætrum Sapientiæ Æternæ (1609), which Waite describes as "a text of
purely spiritual and mystical alchemy."
Just as there is
operative and speculative Masonry, there is likewise spiritual and practical
alchemy. Both use the same arcane symbolism, just as we, as Speculative Masons,
retain the Operative Mason's tools and terminology. Spiritual alchemy, which was
chiefly a pursuit of medieval mystics, maintained that Christian enlightenment
could be obtained through certain practices which were described in an
intentionally confusing jargon. Today, it has been described as a type of
primitive psychology and a means of self‑improvement.
This explains the alchemical aphorism aurum nostrum non est aurum vulgi
(our gold is not the common gold). Practical alchemists, however, attempt to
alter the properties of matter, sometimes through psycho‑chemical means.
Those who seek to enrich themselves by alchemical methods are contemptuously
a plate depicting the "Castle of the Mysteries" or "Alchemical Citadel" (detail,
Sitting atop the citadel is a winged dragon, over the head of which appears a
luminous triangle with the same Hebrew letters that appeared in von Welling's
Opus Mago‑Cabbilisticum et Theosophicum: aleph, beth, and
nun, or ABN.
plate, however, the letter n, nun, appears in terminal form indicating
that it the last letter of a word and that the letters are intended to spell out
the Hebrew word ehben stone (Figure 9). The text explains that the
triangular stone represents the hermetic lapis philosophorum
(philosopher's stone) and lapis angularis (corner stone). Khunrath, a
Christian Qabalist, equated the lapis philosophorum with the Ruach
Elohim or "Spirit of God" of Genesis 1:2. The lapis angularis is
identified in New Testament scriptures (Acts 4:10‑11; 1 Peter 2:6‑8) as Jesus
Christ, who, as the ehben masu ha‑bonim, or "stone rejected by the
builders" of Psalms 118:22, became the "head of the corner".
The three Hebrew
letters at the corners of the triangle are a symbol of Christ, who was the
"Word" (Logos) of John 1:1. Perhaps significantly, the Pretiosa Margarita
Novella, an alchemical text by Petrus Bonus, written ca. 1330‑1339,
also connected the "stone" with the phrase "In the beginning was the word."
The Royal Order of Scotland likewise comes into play in this regard. This order,
which may have existed as early as 1737,
includes the following catechism:
Q. How many
rule a Lodge?
Q. Why so?
Q. Give me
there are three terms in a syllogism by which we discover truth, the major and
the minor proposition and the conclusion.
Q. And what
is the second?
there are three sides in an equilateral triangle, which is an emblem of the
Q. And what
it the third?
there are Three Persons in the Holy Trinity–Father, Son and Holy Ghost, One God.
* * *
Worshipful Senior Grand Warden, what in Masonry is said to represent the Son of
Q. What is
the Perpend‑ashlar otherwise called?
Stone which the Builders rejected, which is now become the Chief Stone of the
Corner, or the most perfect pattern for Masons to try their Moral Jewels upon.
It may be noted
that the Royal Order makes use of the word Jubilon. In addition to the
obvious Trinitarian symbolism of the triangle, by a strange coincidence, the
word ehben also conforms to Harry Mendoza's Trinitarian explanation of
the symbol, as alchemist "Joachim Frizius" [pseud. of Robert Fludd?],
in his Summum Bonum (1629) explains, "Aben (ict) means a stone. In this
one cabalistic stone we have the Father, Son and Holy Ghost ... for in Hebrew Ab
means Father and Ben Son. But where the Father and Son are present there the
Holy Ghost must be also...."
It is difficult to
read the above without being reminded of the mystical lecture's attempted
explanation of the letters ABL in the English Royal Arch triangle. Recall that
in the two oldest Masonic legends cited, the 1782 Rectified Scottish Rite, and
the 1783 Francken Manuscript, the triangle is connected with a stone.
Etymology and Speculative Masonry
Is it possible
that confused or incorrect Hebrew letters in diagrams and documents resulted in
the variety of Compound Words? Was the "Word" based upon Hermetic designs such
as those in Smith's Use and Abuse of Freemasonry, von Welling's Opus,
and their antecedent, the Amphithætrum Sapientiæ Æternæ?
A.E. Waite, in his
Secret Tradition in Freemasonry (1937), cites another Royal Arch legend
which may have some bearing on this. In the degree of Chevalier de la Royale
Arche, "a triangular stone [is discovered], bearing in its centre the name
of God in Hebrew and one of the three following letters at the three angles:
I\B\M\, held to be 'the initials of the True Name borne by our Grand Master.'"
Waite adds that
A crude coloured vignette is affixed to the beginning of the
manuscript, representing the jewel of the Grade, an Arch, having a pedestal
beneath and thereon a triangle inscribed with the word JABULUM, which cannot be
translated as it stands. It may be compared with the initials cited in the text
above and is evidently placed in apposition to the Divine Tetragram, described
as the name of God in Hebrew.
If we consider the
origins of the word Jehovah we may find a parallel in the Compound Word.
The word was formed circa 1500 C.E. by combining the consonants of the
Tetragrammaton JHVH or YHWH with the vowels of the word adonai, Lord,
Perhaps by some
similar method the variants Jah‑Bu‑Lum, Iao‑Bul‑On, Jah‑Bel‑On,
etc., were obtained from combinations of the letters ABL, IBL, IMB and JBM,
supplemented with vowels. Clearly, with a combination of these letters, only
minor syllabic shifts are necessary for the construction of such "words." The
accidental substitution of ABL in Smith's Use and Abuse of Freemasonry
(Figure 4) for the ABN (stone) in von Welling's Opus (Figure 5) lends
itself to such a suggestion, as readily as A.E. Waite observed, IBM yields
Once the origin of
the letters in the corner of the triangle were forgotten enterprising ritualists
may have attempted to "restore" or explain their significance with fanciful
interpretations. Did the ritualistic citation of John 1:1, long connected with
the stone, hint at the solution all along? If so, the Compound Word concealed
the Mystery of the Trinity, and quite literally, for the Masons who introduced
this cryptogram, THE WORD WAS GOD.
Alchemist's Handbook, rev. enl. ed. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1987.
Allen, Paul M.
A Christian Rosenkreutz Anthology, 3d rev. ed. Blauvelt, NY: Spiritual
Science Library, 1968, 1981.
Allyn, Avery. A
Ritual of Freemasonry. Philadelphia: John Clarke, 1831.
Copy of Ritual for Subordinate Chapters of Manitoba. Manitoba: Grand
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, 1987.
Atwood, Mary Anne.
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stanza, "Ode for Closing the Grand Lodge of Perfection," Secret
Directory of Manuscripts of the Ineffable Degrees (1850) Supreme
Council, 33°, N.M.J. (J.J.J. Gourgas Supreme Counci).
Rite of Perfection consists of the fourth through the fourteenth degrees
of the Scottish Rite, and was a carry‑over from Stephen Morin's Rite,
preserved in the 1783 Francken Manuscript, which formed the basis
of the A.&A.S.R. With the exception of the 9°, "Master Elected of Nine,"
and the 10°, "Illustrious Elected of Fifteen," (both vengeance
degrees imported from the Adoniramite Rite), each degree in the 1783
Francken Manuscript's Rite of Perfection employs a variant of, or
substitution for, the Divine name as a "significant word."
standard reference on the subject is Bernard E. Jones, Freemasons
Book of the Royal Arch rev. by Harry Carr and A.R. Hewitt (London:
Harrap, 1957; 1969), but see also "More Light on the Royal Arch" and
"The Relationship Between the Craft and the Royal Arch," in Harry Carr,
World of Freemasonry (London: A Lewis, 1983), pp. 163‑179,
to Albert G. Mackey, "In the third chapter of that book [Exodus], when
Moses asks of god what is His name, He replies 'I am that I am.;' and He
said, 'Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I am hath sent
me unto you,' and He adds, 'this is my name forever.' Now, the Hebrew
word I am is, Ehyeh. But as Mendelsohn has correctly
observed, there is no essential difference between vhvt, in the sixth
chapter and vuvh in the third, the former being the first person
singular, and the latter the third person of the same verb, the future
used in the present sense of the verb to be; and hence what was
said of the name Ehyeh was applied by the Rabbis to the name
Jehovah. But of Ehyeh God had said, 'this is may name forever.' Now
the word forever is represented in the original by l'olam;
but the Rabbis, says Capellus, by change of a single letter, made
l'olam, forever, read as if it had been written l'alam,
which means to be concealed, and hence the passage was translated
'this is my name to be concealed,' instead of 'this is my name
forever.'" "Jehovah," Albert G. Mackey, An Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry, ed., rev., and enl. by Robert I. Clegg with suppl. vol.
by H.L. Haywood, 3 vols. (Chicago: Masonic History, 1929; 1946), vol. 1,
example, the Irish Royal Arch ritual differs from the American York
Rite, the Scottish Rite and the English Royal Arch, in that its
principal characters are King Josiah, Shaphan and Hilkiah the priest.
See W.A. Moore, "The Irish R.A. Legend," The Research Chapter of New
Zealand of Royal Arch Masons No. 95, vol. 6, no. 2 (March 1987), pp.
Development of Ecossais Masonry in France," A.C.F. Jackson, Rose
Croix rev. ed. (London: A Lewis, 1980; 1987), pp. 31‑45.
G. Mackey, An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, ed., rev., and enl. by
Robert I. Clegg with suppl. vol. by H.L. Haywood, 3 vols. (Chicago:
Masonic History, 1929; 1946), s.v. Enoch.
Lee, Orbis Miraculum (1659), p. 370, as quoted in Harry
Carr, "The Relationship Between the Craft and the Royal Arch," in
Harry Carr’s World of Freemasonry (London: A Lewis, 1983), p. 359.
Enoch XVIII. R.H. Charles, The Book of Enoch (London: S.P.C.K.,
1917), pp. 44‑45.
"Lecture" of Thomas Smith Webb's Royal Arch ritual (which served as the
foundation of the American York Rite) states in part: "We learn from
sacred history and from the writings of Josephus ... ."
to William Whiston, Josephus mistook "...Seth the son of Adam for Seth
or Sesostris, king of Egypt, the erector of this pillar in the land of
Siriad...." Josephus: Complete Works ([1737? ] Edinburgh: William
P. Nimmo, 1867; reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Kregal, 1981), p. 27.
Kaplan, Meditation and the Bible (York
Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1978), p. 58.
p. 159, fnt. 40.
Americans realize the difference in rituals of the Royal Arch. Only in
America do we find the Imitation Ark, an invention of Thomas Smith Webb,
father of the American York Rite, and the best argument that the Select
Master, which deals with said Ark, had to be an American invention...."
J. Ray Shute, "The Innovators," Collectanea (Grand College of
Rites, U.S.A.), vol. 10, no. 2 (1975), p. 100.
de Castells, The Genuine Secrets of Freemasonry (reprint ed.,
London: A Lewis, 1978), p. 208.
Aid for Chapter Work as Permitted by the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of
ed. (Richmond: Macoy, 1984), p. 154.
anachronisms abound in Masonic rituals. In many American Jurisdictions,
the Mark Masters degree retains anachronistic readings of Matthew
20:1‑16; 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11 and Revelation 2:17.
Other jurisdictions, such as California, substitute 2 Chronicles 2:16,
and the anachronistic Ezekiel 44:1‑3. Ritual of the Grand Chapter of
Royal Arch Masons of the State of California (Grand Chapter R.A.M.,
1974), pp. 20‑21.
L. Cross, The True Masonic Chart (New Haven: Doolittle, 1820), p.
114; John Sheville and James L. Gould, Guide to the Royal Arch
Chapter (New York: Masonic Publishing, 1867), p. 171.
Higgins, Anacalypsis, an Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitic
Isis, 2 vols. (London: Longman, Rees, Ormes, Brown, Green, and
Longman, 1836), vol. 1, p. 832.
of the pedestal and plate, as used in the Supreme Council, 33°, S.J.,
may be found in Albert Pike, Liturgy of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry Part II (Charleston, A\M\ 5722; reprint
ed., Springfield: Goetz Printing Co., 1982), pp. 148, 174; [Albert
Pike,] The Inner Sanctuary Part I. The Book of the Lodge of
Perfection (reprint ed. Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., U.S.A.,, 1962),
p. 250. Depending on jurisdiction, the golden plate may be inscribed in
any number of languages, including Hebrew, Samaritan, Phoenician, and
S. Webb's Royal Arch ritual explains that after penetrating the vault,
the investigators discovered "in the north east corner thereof, on a
pedestal, a box of an oblong form, overlaid with gold, on the top and
sides of which were several mysterious characters." Versions of the
Royal Arch Cipher are reproduced in Fred L. Pick and G. Norman Knight,
The Freemason's Pocket Reference Book, 3d rev. ed. (London:
Frederick Muller, Ltd., 1955, 1965, 1983), p. 73, and Beyond the
Pillars: More Light on Freemasonry (Grand Lodge A.F.&A.M. of Canada
in the Province of Ontario, 1973), p. 92. The cipher is sometimes
mistakenly called the "Rosicrucian cipher," as in Fred B. Wrixon,
Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages (New York: Bonanza Books, 1989),
some American jurisdictions the Compound Word is denominated the key
word or covering word, while another word is considered the
Grand Omnific Royal Arch Word. Other jurisdictions maintain that
the compound word together with another word constitute the Grand
Omnific Royal Arch Word, or the long lost Master's Word, the
Royal Arch Word, the Grand Omnific Word, etc. In Britain,
the archaic Jehovah Jahbulon was deemed the Sacred and
Mysterious Name of the True and Living God Most High. According to
Dr. Oliver's alleged 1740 Rite Ancient de Bouillon, Hiram wore "a medal
whereon [was] engraved a double triangle enclosed within a circle and in
the midst of which are the Tetray Hebrew letters [vuvh]." A drawing of
the jewel appears in Hinman, Denslow and Hunt, A History of the
Cryptic Rite (1931) vol. 1, p. 177. Albert Pike likely used the
representation in the Rite Ancient de Bouillon as the basis for
his illustration of Hiram's jewel in his version of the Scottish Rite
Master Masons degree. See Albert Pike, The Porch and the Middle
Chamber The Book of the Lodge. (Ierodom, A\M\ 5632
[New York?, 1872]), p. 313. Early Craft exposures placed the Divine name
upon Hiram's grave; see Harry Carr, Early French Exposures
(London: Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, 1971), pp. 99, 251, 355 (in
Hebrew on a triangle); Erich J. Lindner, The Royal Art Illustrated
(Graz: Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, 1976), pp. 27, 29, 31, 59,
61, 63, 69 (the letter G within a triangle).
Francis Barrett, The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer (London:
Lackington, Allen and Co., 1801), 2:65 (illus. fac. p. 66); E.A.W.
Budge, Amulets and Superstitions (London: Oxford University
Press, 1930), pp. 402‑405; S.L. MacGregor Mathers, The Kabbalah
Unvailed (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1926), p. 10. As an
amusing side‑note, I add that while writing the first version of this
paper (1992) my then nine‑year‑old son presented me a message in the
R.A. cipher which he hoped would confound me. When I asked him for the
source he retrieved A Big Color–Activity Book: Nintendo Super Mario
Bros. (Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing Co., 1989), p. 42. So
much for Masonic secrecy!
is cited as a possible variant of Jabulon in Charles
Laffon‑Ladebat, Ancient and Accepted Scotch Rite, Eighteenth Degree,
p. 105 and Michel Saint‑Gall, Dictionnaire des Hebraismes et d'Autres
Termes Specifiques d'Origine Francaise, Etrangere ou Inconnue dans le
Rite Ecossais et Accepte (Paris: Editions Demeter, 1988); Allyn,
A Ritual of Freemasonry, p. 257.
Arch of Enoch," Ritual of the A&A Egyptian Rite of Memphis, 96°
(Sovereign Sanctuary of Canada, [ca. 1882]).
Edward Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, 2d ed.
(London: William Rider, 1937), p. 456. Waite compares this with
Elect Perfect and Sublime Master (or Mason)," Secret Directory of
Manuscripts of the Ineffable Degrees (1850) Supreme Council, 33°,
N.M.J. (J.J.J. Gourgas Supreme Council).
Work,] The Official Ritual–Heredom of Kilwinning and Rosy Cross
(Edinburgh: Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland, 1953).
Coil, Masonic Encyclopedia (New York: Macoy, 1961), p. 516. In a
series of illuminating articles, Charles C. Hunt explores possible
etymological roots and the religious significance of these words in his
"Three Ancient Languages" in Lessons in Capitular Masonry, 4
vols. (Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Iowa, 1927‑1932; reprint ed., General
Grand Chapter, R.A.M. International, 1971), vol. 4, pp. 50‑64.
appears in the "Knights of the Ninth Arch" degree in several early
American exposés, as well as in the "Knight(s) of the East and West" in
Bernard (1829) and Crafts (1852).
Bernard, Light on Masonry 3d ed. (Utica: William Williams, 1829),
p. 126; Avery Allyn, A Ritual of Freemasonry (Philadelphia: John
Clarke, 1831), p. 123‑124; George R. Crafts, The Mysteries of Free
Masonry (New York: Wilson and Co., 1852), pp. 50, 56.
Pike,] The Inner Sanctuary Part I. The Book of the Lodge of
Perfection (reprint ed. Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., U.S.A.,, 1962),
Masonic Rite of Memphis] (N.p., n.d., ca. 1870‑80), p. 97.
Pike,] The Inner Sanctuary Part IV The Book of the Holy House
([New York?] A\M\ 5644 ), p. 44.
S. Box, The Nature of Freemasonry (London: Augustine Press,
1952), pp. 68‑71; Walton Hannah, Darkness Visible (London:
Augustine Press, 1952), pp. 154, 156; James Dewar, The Unlocked
Secret (London: William Kimber, 1966), p. 200; Royal A. Wells,
Some Royal Arch Terms Examined 2d ed. (London: A Lewis, 1978, 1988)
Rose Croix de Heredom," The Text Book of Advanced Freemasonry
(London: Reeves and Turner, 1873), 205. Using the 1938 Jahabulon
as a guide, I have reconstructed this word from the letters N . L . . H
. I, read backwards, with each dot presumably represents one letter,
Carlile, Manual of Freemasonry (London, ca. 1825).
Pike,] [The Magnum Opus] (N.p. ), p. XXVIII...1.
Laffon‑Ladebat, Ancient and Accepted Scotch Rite, Eighteenth Degree
(New Orleans, 1856), p. 105; Collectanea (Grand College of Rites,
U.S.A.), vol. 11, no. 2 (1980), p. 127; Albert Pike, Sephar
h'Debarim–The Book of the Words (N.p. A\M\ 5638 ), p. 140. The
Royal‑Arche degree in an undated set of Rite of Mizraim
manuscript rituals I have gives Jabulum and Ja‑bu‑lum.
have seen an old Scottish manuscript ritual with this form. It may have
been intended to signify "Jah, lord of strength." Jah (vh) +
Baal (kgc), "lord, master" + Aun (iut), "strength, force."
Hannah cites this as "a variation of the Royal Arch word." See
Darkness Visible, p. 202.
1857 version included: vuvh I\A\W\ kgc A\U\M\.
Ron Carlson is President of Christian Ministries International of Eden
Prairie, Minn. For a response to Carlson's lies, see Art deHoyos, The
Cloud of Prejudice: A Study in anti‑Masonry, 2d ed. (Kila, Mont.:
Kessinger Publishing Co., 1992, 1993), pp. 56‑60. "Resolution No. 4" by
William F. Slusher, in Address of the Grand High Priest, Grand Royal
Arch Chapter of Texas and Capitular Review. Proposed Resolutions, 1991
(Waco, Tex.: Grand Royal Arch Chapter, 1991), pp. 42‑43.
Hannah, Darkness Visible, pp. 34‑35, 181; Box, The Nature of
Freemasonry, pp. 68‑72; Hannah, Christian by Degrees (London:
Augustine Press, 1954), p. 82.
(Grand College of Rites, U.S.A.), vol. 10, no. 3 (1976), p. 205.
Strong, Dictionary of the Words in the Hebrew Bible, word #1167.
C.C. Hunt observes: "Sometimes Jehovah and Baal are used
interchangeably. Notice in 2 Sam. 5:20, David names the place of his
victory Baal‑Perazim, because Jehovah had broken his enemies before him
like a breach of waters. The name means 'the Baal of the place of the
breach of waters.' Notice this union in the names of men of this
time.For instance, Beeliada (Baal knows) a son of David, 1 Chron. 14:7,
is called Eliada (God Knows) in 2nd Samuel 5:16. A certain friend of
David is called Beliah (Baal is Jah) in 1 Chron. 12:5. David was a
devout worshiper of Jehovah and would not have given the name Baal to
his son had he considered it the name of a heathen deity. The name
'Bealiah' 1 Chron. 12:5, means 'Jehovah is Baal.' Thus here as well as
in 2 Sam. 5:20 Jehovah is called 'Baal.'" C.C. Hunt, "Three Ancient
Languages" in Lessons in Capitular Masonry, vol. 4, p. 60;
Strong, word #5920. The word frequently has religious connotations: "al
... the Highest (i.e. God) ; also (adv.) aloft, to
Jehovah: –above, high, most High."
This is offered for argument only. I am not suggesting that kgc would
properly mean "on high" as the Masoretic Text employs maal
(kgn) in this sense.
Pike alluded to this in his Magnum Opus, XXVIII...26, but omitted
the comments when the section was reprinted Morals and Dogma, p.
Ritual of Holy Royal Arch as Taught in the Aldersgate Chapter of
Improvement No. 1657
(London: A Lewis, 1938), pp. 106‑107. As with English Craft rituals,
each body is free to elect which form is employed. Although the Domatic
ritual claims to be the oldest, Aldersgate ritual, which follows
it very closely, enjoys enormous popularity. In any case, the "mystical
lecture" is virtually uniform.
a discussion of temurah, see Israel Regardie, A Garden of
Pomegranates: An Outline of the Qabalah 2d rev. ed. (St. Paul, MN:
Llewellyn, 1970), pp. 111‑116; Harry Carr, "More Light on the Royal
Arch" in World of Freemasonry (London: A Lewis, 1983), pp.
Although baal is often considered a "pagan" designation, the name
was Biblically employed in reference to Yahweh. As C.C. Hunt observed,
"Beelida (Baal knows) a son of David, 1 Chron. 14:7, is called Eliada
(God knows) in 2 Samuel 5:15. A friend of David is called Beliah (Baal
is Jah) in 1 Chron. 12:5.... The name 'Bealiah' 1 Chron. 12:5 means
'Jehovah is Baal.' Thus here as well as in 2 Samuel 5:20, Jehovah is
called 'Baal.'" Lessons in Capitular Masonry, vol. 2, p. 60.
Kaplan, Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation (York Beach, Maine:
Samuel Weiser, 1990), pp. 80‑85.
Scholem, Kabbalah (New York: Dorset, 1987), p. 180; "Divine
Names," Aryeh Kaplan, Meditation and the Bible (York Beach,
Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1978), pp. 74‑86; Aryeh Kaplan, Meditation and
Kabbalah (York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1982).
Numbers, Names, Letters & Computations of God," Charles Ponce,
Kabalah (Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 1983), pp. 169‑196.
V. Denslow, writing in his Masonic Rites and Degrees
([Transactions of the Missouri Lodge of Research], 1955), maintained the
Knight of the Royal Arch was part of the "Helvetic Rite," but was
unclear whether he meant the 1784 Reformed Helvetic Rite, or Glaire's
1810 Helvetic Rite. A copy of this ritual was in the collection of
H.V.B. Voorhis, in a book entitled Masonic Rituals: Templar, K.T.P.,
Female, Misc. (Vol. 1737, item 21). The superscription on Voorhis'
copy reads, "The following degree was not included in those of Stephen
Morin but was first introduced into the Island of Jamaica by Moses Cohen
from North America, as Deputy Inspector." A notation adds, "Before
1800." Eugene E. Hinman, Ray V. Denslow and Charles C. Hunt, A
History of the Cryptic Rite 2 vols. (General Grand Council, R.&S.M.,
1931), vol. 1 p. 99, state that this degree was appended to an old
manuscript ritual book of Morin's 25‑degree rite which belonged to an
old Jewish family of Jamaica. There is a similar copy known as the
"Unmarked Manuscript Book from BX 31" located in the Archives vault of
the House of the Temple of the Supreme Council, 33°, S.J. (Washington,
D.C.). The 1802 Circular throughout the two Hemispheres issued by
the first Supreme Council, 33°, A.&A.S.R., Charleston, S.C., explained
that in addition to the Scottish Rite degrees, "most Inspectors are in
possession of a number of detached degrees, given in different parts of
the world ... [including] the Royal Arch, as given under the
Constitution of Dublin." I believe the Knight of the Royal Arch is the
degree here referred to.
Edward Waite, trans., The Liturgy of the Rite of the Strict
Observance Reformed and Rectified (N.p., 1905; reprinted in
Frederick F. Bahnson, The Rite of Strict Observance, C.B.C.S.
[Warrenton, N.C.: Privately Printed by J. Edward Allen, 1934]), p. R‑16.
Strong notes that leb is "used very widely for the feelings, the
will and even the intellect...." A Concise Dictionary of the Words in
the Hebrew Bible (Madison, N.J., 1890), word No. 3820.
Smith, The Use and Abuse of Free‑Masonry (London: G. Kearsley,
1785), detail, Figure 4.
von Welling, Opus Mago‑Cabbilisticum et Theosophicum (Frankfurt
and Leipzig, 1760). All of von Welling's illustrations are reproduced in
Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages (San Francisco:
H.S. Crocker, 1928; reprint ed., Los Angeles: Philosophical Research
Society, 1977), pp. CXLV‑CXLVIII. This detail appears on page CXLVI in
Table VII, item 3. Hall's commentary predates Mendoza's yet provides a
similar interpretation. For Hall, the figure "represents the Trinity in
Copy of Ritual for Subordinate Chapters of Manitoba (Manitoba:
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, 1987), p. 68.
M. Allen, A Christian Rosenkreutz Anthology, 3d rev. ed.
(Blauvelt, NY: Spiritual Science Library, 1968, 1981), p. 375.
Edward Waite, The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross (London: William
Rider & Son, 1924), p. 61.
Conrad Khunrath, Amphithætrum Sapientiæ Æternæ Solius Veræ,
Christiano‑Kabalisticum, Divino‑Magicum, nec non Physico‑Chemicum,
Tertriunum, Catholicon (Hanau: E. Wolfart, 1609); Arthur Edward
Waite, The Secret Tradition in Alchemy (London, 1926), p. 236.
for example, Herbert Silberer, Problems of Mysticism and its
Symbolism (New York: Moffat, Yard and Co., 1917); Mary Anne Atwood,
A Suggestive Inquiry into Hermetic Mystery (Belfast: William Tait,
1918); Grillot de Givry, Witchcraft, Magic & Alchemy (Houghton
Mifflin Co., 1931); Israel Regardie, The Philosopher's Stone. A
Modern Comparative Approach to Alchemy from the Psychological and
Magical Points of View (London: Rider & Co., 1938); Carl G. Jung,
Psychology and Alchemy (Princeton University Press, 1953, 1968);
Titus Burckhardt, Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul
(Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1971); Cherry Gilchrist, Alchemy: The
Great Work (Wellingborough: Aquarian Press, 1984).
Cockren, Alchemy Rediscovered and Restored (reprint ed.,
Mokelumne Hill, Calif.: Health Research, 1963); Frater Albertus,
Alchemist's Handbook rev. enl. ed. (York Beach, Maine: Samuel
plate is reproduced in Grillot de Givry, Witchcraft, Magic & Alchemy
(Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931), p. 348 and Paul M. Allen, A Christian
Rosenkreutz Anthology, 3d rev. ed. (Blauvelt, N.Y.: Spiritual
Science Library, 1968, 1981), p. 279.
Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, pp. 373‑375.
date is based upon Waite's deduction that Chevalier Ramsey was familiar
with the ritual prior to his famous discourse of 1737. Arthur Edward
Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry [2d ed.] (London:
William Rider, 1937), p. 228. Henry W. Coil, citing Robert F. Gould,
states that the Royal Order had "a Grand Master in London as early as
1741." Freemasonry Through Six Centuries 2 vols. (Richmond: Macoy,
1967), vol. 1, p. 298.
Edward Waite, The Secret Tradition in Alchemy (London, 1926), p.
11; Waite, Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, p. 232.
Frizius, Summum Bonum, quod est verum Magiæ, Cabalæ, Alchymiæ veræ
Fratrum Roseæ Crucis verorum subjectum (Frankfurt, 1629), as quoted
in Herbert Silberer, Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism (New
York: Moffat, Yard and Co., 1917), p. 177. I was obliged to correct the
Hebrew, as it had been mistypeset. Although aleph (t) is the
initial of ab (ct), "father," and beth (c) is the initial
of ben (ic) "son," I have avoided using nun (b) as the
initial of nephesh (apb), "spirit," because it properly signifies
a ghost or departed spirit. It is not employed in reference to Deity,
but refers to an "animal soul."
Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, p. 452.