Review of Freemasonry

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by Bro. William Steve Burkle KT, 32°
Scioto Lodge No. 6, Chillicothe, Ohio.
Philo Lodge No. 243, South River, New Jersey

Freemasonry as a modern institution is very uncomfortable with the notion that occultism now (or ever has) played a role in the Craft.  This discomfort is understandable, since none of the activities commonly considered to be occult are performed in the Lodge. Freemasons and their activities during Lodge are in fact governed by fairly clear rules and regulations concerning the content of ritual and individual conduct associated therewith. None of these rituals include, endorse, or promote occult practices. This is not to say that Masonic literature or ritual is totally devoid of esoteric content, because it isn’t. Some of our most illustrious members have in fact engaged in detailed conjecture and interpretation of esoteric material.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary[i], the term occult was first used in 1545, meaning that which is “not apprehended, or not apprehensible, by the mind; beyond the range of understanding or of ordinary knowledge.” In 1633, the word received an additional meaning[ii], denoting the subject of “those ancient and medieval reputed sciences, held to involve the knowledge or use of agencies of a secret and mysterious nature (such as magic, alchemy, astrology, and theology).”  The definition of the term esoteric from a similar source[iii] refers to “the doctrines or practices of esoteric knowledge, or otherwise the quality or state of being esoteric, or obscure. Esoteric knowledge is that which is specialized or advanced in nature, available only to a narrow circle of "enlightened", "initiated", or highly educated people”. The word esotericism does not appear prior to the nineteenth century. I believe that the late appearance of the word esoteric in our vocabulary bears the consequence that there was no real discernment between esotericism and occultism, even though they represent very different things. Lumping the occult and the esoteric together without distinction would of course have led to many misunderstandings, not the least of which would have been the inability of the uneducated to distinguish between those behaviors held by the church to be sorcery (occult), and those which were not (esoteric). Since both were considered heresy it was probably a moot point. I believe it is interesting to note that the appearance of the word esoteric coincides with the period of scientific enlightenment and the founding of the Royal Society, circa[iv] 1660 A.D. Doubtless it would have been far more acceptable (and safer) for Gentlemen of the time to be engaged in practices which were the domain of “highly educated people” rather than those which were the domain of the devil.

Admittedly, many modern definitions of the term occult still equate it with esotericism, and do not differentiate between the two[v]. I believe the failure to discern the difference has been the cause of perpetual misunderstandings concerning the practices of the Craft. In this article we will use the term occult to signify those beliefs and practices which involve evoking (i.e. conjuring) the power or assistance of the unknown (or the unknowable). We will consider the term esoteric to refer to knowledge or beliefs which are hidden, or which are understandable only by those initiated in their meaning. Synonyms for esoteric will here include the words arcane (a word which also first appeared in the 17th Century[vi]) and mystic. 

It is a fact that whether condoned by the Lodge or not, many Freemasons have participated (and still do participate) overtly or covertly in study of the occult and have engaged in practices clearly associated with occultism. Many of these Masons have contributed heavily to the body of occult literature and have founded organizations based upon occult belief. This paper examines the period of resurgent interest in occultism during the Occult Revival of the late 19th Century, which began in the middle of the 19th Century and continued well into the early-to-mid 20th Century.

We will in the course of this paper identify nineteen influential Freemasons engaged in occultism during the time period coinciding with the late 19th Century, and summarize the roles of some of these individuals in occultism. This paper will further attempt to briefly describe the social and cultural pressures which may have given rise to this resurgent interest in the occult. Please note that the enormous volume of work published by Masons and Non-Masons alike during the occult revival of the late 19th Century, and the available space in this paper combine to prohibit a detailed exposition upon the occult or esoteric works of any single individual or form of occultism. Accordingly, this paper is intended to open discussions concerning an unusual period of Masonic History and to acknowledge that individual Freemasons during this period did indeed involve themselves in occult matters. This acknowledgement does not signify that Freemasonry or that Freemasons have occult leanings; Masons are intellectually curious by nature, and in the course of seeking light have always been in the forefront of philosophy, research, and investigation. Such freethinking often creates controversy; for every Mason investigating occultism I could readily produce a list of four or five others who have pursued intellectual quests resulting in great scientific breakthroughs such as penicillin or electric lighting. The point is that when curiosity or investigation of any type is stifled, mankind is poorer for it.

Occult and Esoteric Groups, Practices, and Beliefs

            By way of introduction I would first like to offer a brief overview of a few of the practices, and beliefs commonly considered either occult or esoteric. I separate practices and beliefs for a very specific reason here; namely it is possible to make a broad separation of the practical (applied) from many of the philosophical (speculative) forms of occultism/esotericism. Freemasons will notice the parallel here to our own division of Freemasonry into Operative Masonry and Speculative Masonry. This specific separation in many cases is the single point of difference between the occult and the esoteric.  One good example of this which comes to mind is the difference between the exoteric Alchemist furiously attempting to turn lead into gold (also called “puffers”[vii]) and the esoteric Alchemist seeking to create metaphoric gold in the form of his spirit. The beliefs and practices associated with various Freemasons of the period will be listed and summarized in no particular order below. Please bear in mind that strict definitions of the occult/esoteric are nearly impossible to produce, in large part because of disagreement as to which elements do or do not constitute authentic practices. These summaries therefore represent my best effort at offering a comprehensive explanation.

·        Hermeticism – Hermeticism is a complex philosophical system of introspection and self transformation, said to originate with Hermes Trismegistus, The philosophy involves the Four Elements (air, fire, water, and earth) plus the Akasha, the two Fluids (electric and magnetic), and  the three Bodies: (mental, astral and physical)[viii]. This philosophy holds that all things exist as part of the divine Unity of Self. Hermeticism is closely related to spiritual alchemy, which uses hermetic symbolism. In this paper, hermeticism is considered an esoteric belief system, with some aspects of practice considered occult.

·        Alchemy – Alchemy is an art of ancient origins, often interpreted as an enquiry into man's relationship with the cosmos and the will of the Creator, manifested as either a devotional philosophy transforming sinful man into perfect being (‘esoteric’), or attempted transmutation of base metals into gold or silver (‘exoteric’)[ix]. The catalyst required was the elixir of life, tincture, or philosophers' stone, the search for which long obsessed men of all rank. Alchemy is considered the basis for the modern science of chemistry[x], however the more esoteric (symbolic or metaphoric) aspects are still found in  regular practice[xi].   Alchemy is here considered an esoteric practice.

·        Spiritualism – The belief that the dead can communicate with the living through a medium. Also when used as Divination by means of the spirits of the dead, it’s called Necromancy[xii]. With the Greeks it originally signified the descent into Hades in order to consult the dead rather than summoning the dead into the mortal sphere again. Spiritualism and Necromancy are occult practices.

·        Astrology – The study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs. Astrology is often used as a form of Divination[xiii] that consists of interpreting the influence of stars and planets on present and future earthly affairs and human destinies. In ancient times it was inseparable from astronomy. Astrology is considered here to be an esoteric practice or belief.

·        Ceremonial Magic and its Variants – “Magic is the traditional science of the secrets of nature, by means of which the adept is invested with a species of relative omnipotence and can operate supernaturally” (Eliphus Levi)[xiv]. Ceremonial magic, also known as ritual magic, is a highly disciplined form of magic in which ceremony and ritual become the central tools used in the magical operation.  Ceremonial magic centers upon the art of the invocation (or evocation), and control of spirits. In its more contemporary versions, Ceremonial magic concerns the discipline of the self and the art of controlling and directing personal and cosmic power, which may or may not be personified as a demonic or deific form[xv]. Ceremonial magic is considered an occult practice.

·        Cartomancy (including Tarot) – Cartomancy is a form of divination using a deck of cards. Tarot cards are one type of card used for such a purpose, although an ordinary deck of playing cards may also be used. The Tarot deck consists of 22 Major Arcana cards, and 56 Minor Arcana cards (Arcana means "hidden things"). Each Minor Arcana suit consists of 4 court cards (usually king, queen, knight and page) along with 10 numbered, or pip, cards[xvi]. The fifty-six minor cards are similar to the regular deck of playing cards most people know today, while the Major Arcana cards are present only in the Tarot deck. According to some traditions, a deck that is used for cartomancy should not be used for any other purpose. Cartomancers generally feel that the deck should be treated as a tool and cared for accordingly. Some cartomancers also feel that the cards should never be touched by anyone other than their owner. Others believe that a card deck handled by those receiving a reading promotes a better reading[xvii]. Cartomancy is unique in that its practice is esoteric, but its belief system is occult.

·        Catoptromancy (Scrying) – Catoptromancy also known as captromancy or enoptromancy, is divination using a mirror or by crystal gazing[xviii].  Originally the term applied specifically to a species of divination, which was performed by letting down a mirror into water, for a sick person to look at his face in it. If his countenance appeared distorted and ghastly, it was an ill omen; if fresh and healthy, it was favorable. [xix] The famous Magus John Dee attempted scrying using a mirror made of polished obsidian, allegedly of Aztec origin. Dee however recorded that he was unsuccessful using this mirror but that ultimately he was successful at scrying by using a crystal ball[xx]. Scrying is an occult art.

·        Kabala – Kabala is a complex body of mystical teachings of rabbinical origin, often based on an esoteric interpretation of the Hebrew Scripture or the secret doctrine resembling these teachings. The word means "doctrines received from tradition."  The Kabala deals with the nature of God and with the Sephiroth, or divine emanations of angels and man. God fills and contains the universe; God is boundless, inconceivable, and distantly transcendent[xxi].  Study of the Kabala is considered an esoteric practice and is closely associated with the mystic system of numerology known as Gematria.

This then, is a shortened roster of practices and beliefs which became the foundations for the various occult and esoteric organizations which appeared during the period of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries (including many organizations founded or influenced by Freemasons). Some of these occult and esoteric organizations founded or influenced by Masons include (again in no particular order):

·        The Rosicrucians (and Variants) - The original appellation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic–theosophic “Rosicrucian Brotherhood" was described in the pamphlet "Fama Fraternitatis R.C." (Rosae crucis), which was circulated in manuscript form as early as 1610 and first appeared in print in 1614 at Cassel[xxii]. Together with the Confessio Fraternitatis (1615), and the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz (1616) the legend of a German pilgrim named "C.R.C." (later introduced in the third manifesto as Christian Rosenkreuz) is presented. The legend tells that this pilgrim studied in the Middle East under various occult masters and founded the Rosicrucian Order, which aimed to bring about a "universal reformation of mankind”[xxiii]. Rosicrucianism was a manifestation of Hermeticism which later spawned a number of variants.[xxiv] Although considered occult by the Roman Catholic Church, this organization is here considered esoteric.

·        Hermetic Order of The Golden Dawn (and Variants) – was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, practicing a form of spiritual development. It was possibly the single greatest influence on twentieth century western occultism[xxv]. Concepts of magic and ritual that became core elements of many other traditions, including Wicca, Thelema, and other forms of magical spirituality popular today, are drawn from the Golden Dawn tradition. The three founders, Dr. William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers were Freemasons and members of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.) [xxvi]. Westcott, also a member of the Theosophical Society, appears to have been the initial driving force behind the establishment of the Golden Dawn.The name was taken from the Fama Fraternitatis, a Rosicrucian manifesto from 1614. Among the practices were astrology, kabala, alchemy, scrying, and ceremonial magic.  This organization is considered occult.

·        Ordo Templi Orientis – a secret, fraternal organization similar to that of Freemasonry, with a series of graded initiations. For its teachings and principles of organization, it has accepted the Law of Thelema, which is expressed as “Do what thou wilt.” Thelemites believe that this Law was established with the writing of the Book of the Law by Aleister Crowley in 1904 in Cairo, Egypt[xxvii].  The Spiritual Father of Ordo Templi Orientis was Carl Kellner (Renatus, Sept. 1, 1851 - June 7, 1905), a wealthy Austrian paper chemist. Kellner was a student of Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism and Eastern mysticism[xxviii]. The practices of the OTO (especially under Crowley) were bizarre; it is considered an occult organization.

·        Oriental Rite of Memphis and Rite of Mizraim - The Rite of Memphis was constituted by Jacques Etienne Marconis de Nègre in 1838, as a variant of the Rite of Misraïm, combining elements from Templarism and chivalry with Egyptian and alchemical mythology. It had at least two lodges (“Osiris” and “Des Philadelphes”) at Paris, two more (“La Bienveillance” and “De Heliopolis”) in Brussels, and a number of English supporters.[xxix] This organization is considered esoteric.

·        Theosophical Society - The Theosophical Society was founded in New York City in 1875 by H.P. Blavatsky and others. Its initial objective was the investigation, study and explanation of mediumistic phenomena[xxx] (spiritualism). This is considered an occult organization.

·        Builders of the Adytum (B.O.T.A.) - Adytum is the Greek word for Inner Shrine or Holy of Holies. B.O.T.A. recognizes Qabalah as the root of Judaism and Christianity. Its ultimate purpose is to hasten the true Brotherhood of mankind and to make manifest the truth that love is the only real power in the universe[xxxi]. B.O.T.A. promotes esoteric psychology, Tarot, Hermetic Qabalah, Astrology, and meditation. These symbolic systems are explained as representing parts of the Self, rather than the traditional use of Tarot and astrology for prediction of the future[xxxii]. B.O.T.A. was founded by Dr. Paul Foster Case, a freemason. The B.O.T.A. is considered esoteric.

·        Fratres Lucis - Fratres Lucis is a variant of the Masonic Order of the Rosy Cross[xxxiii].

·        Ancient Masonic Order of Druids (AMOD) and it’s predecessor the Ancient Order of Druids in America (AODA) - The Ancient Order of Druids in America is descended from the Ancient Archaeological Order of Druids (AAOD) founded in 1874 by Robert Wentworth Little, an English Mason and Rosicrucian[xxxiv]. Little is perhaps better known as the founder of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), the immediate predecessor of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Little's Order drew on nearly two centuries of previous Druid orders in Britain. While many of the original members of the AAOD were Masons, Masonic membership was not originally required for admission. In 1886 the name of the Order was changed to Ancient Masonic Order of Druids (AMOD) and about two-thirds of the non-Masonic members were expelled from the Order. The Ancient Masonic Order of Druids was based upon nature spirituality. Many of its rites were similar to those of the Golden Dawn.

Many of these organizations continue to exist yet today, others have long been extinct. Some of these organizations were eventually to be tainted by the bizarre practices and rituals introduced by successors, and the stain of corruption is all that remains.

Occultism during the Late 19th Century

During the 19th and 20th Centuries there have been two periods which could properly be termed occult revivals; the first being from roughly 1850 until 1950, and the second the time period from approximately 1965 until about 1975. The latter period coincided[xxxv] with the more widely spread “peace movement”, a largely generational event which produced such cultural phenomena as the musical “Hair” which brought the “Age of Aquarius”[xxxvi] forth in popular culture. Much of the occultism during this period was later relabeled “New Age” and was adopted by a much broader demographic than that of the occult revival of the 19th Century. Masonic interest in the occult had largely waned by this time, and there were few Freemasons who were influential in the New Age occultism of this later period. This is in spite of the fact that Masonic Membership at the time (especially in the United States) was experiencing explosive growth[xxxvii].

By contrast, the late 19th and early 20th Centuries found the world coping with change and in the midst of uncertainty. The second industrial revival was in full throttle and two world wars were on the horizon. These conditions created fertile ground for a return to ancient beliefs and practices which promised greater personal control and different answers to the great questions of life than those offered by traditional church theology. Many of the era’s great philosophical intellects were Masons, so it is no surprise that these same individuals would involve themselves in intellectual examinations of and experimentations with the occult. The period also spawned occultists such as Aleister Crowley, who claimed Masonic affiliation, but who was in fact affiliated with an irregular lodge. Thus, when considering the period of the 19th Century and Freemasons involved in the occult, it is of no small importance to carefully examine the Masonic credentials of those laying claim to the Craft.

Freemasons Influential in Occultism

            In Table 1 below I have prepared a listing of nineteen Individuals who were prominent authors, organizers, or authorities on occult and/or esoteric matters during the period here of interest, and who were also indisputably connected with Regular Lodges. Where available I have provided the date of birth, date of death, and the source(s) by which their Masonic affiliation was derived. The occult organization(s) in which these Freemasons were involved or the occult activities in which they participated, and the role(s) they played in such are likewise provided in the table. Unless otherwise noted the information for the construction of the occult affiliations portion of this table is taken from the Biographic Summaries of the website of The Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon[xxxviii]. 

Included in this list are the founders and co-founders of such notorious occult organizations as the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) and The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (HOGD). Likewise, mystics such as Arthur Edward Waite, famous for his rendering of the Rider-Waite Tarot and related publications are included; there are a number of crossovers between the occult and esoteric evident within the listing. In many instances these individuals no longer had Masonic affiliation when these occult activities began. These instances (where evident) have been identified by placing an asterisk (*) before the name of the individual.

            I reiterate that the sheer volume of known work produced by this group of nineteen Freemasons was so extensive that it is impossible to adequately address any substantial portion in a paper of limited length. Suffice it to say that there is ample evidence of the involvement of Freemasons in the Occult Revival of the Late 19th Century.       

Table 1 - A Summary listing of nineteen individuals associated with Freemasonry and prominent in the resurgence of occultism during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, along with their corresponding occult activities and attendant role.




Organization or Activity


Albert Pike[xxxix]

(Dec. 29, 1808 – Apr. 2, 1891)

Western Star Lodge No. 2, Little Rock, Arkansas

Raised:  November 4, 1850

Kabala, Hermeticism

Author (mystic)

Arthur Edward Waite[xl]

(Oct. 2, 1857 – May 19, 1953)

St. Marylebone Lodge No. 1305, London

Raised : February 10, 1902

Cartomancy (Tarot)

The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA)

Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn

Fellowship of the Rosy Cross

Author (mystic)

Member (occult)

Founder (mystic)

Founder (mystic)

*Albert Karl Theodore Reuss[xli]

(June 28, 1855 - Oct. 28, 1923)

Pilger Lodge No. 238, UGLE (London)

Raised: January 9, 1878
Excluded: October 1, 1880

Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO)[xlii]

Founder (occult)

Dr. William Robert Woodman[xliii]

(1828- December 20, 1891)

St. George’s Lodge No. 129, Exeter

Initiated: 1857

The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA)

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Supreme Magus (occult)

Co-Founder (occult)

Eliphas Levi[xliv]

(February 11, 1810 - May 31, 1875)

Lodge Rose du Parfait Silence, Grand Orient of France, Paris.

Initiated: March 14, 1861

Transcendental Magic and Magical Historian


Author (occult)

Francis George Irwin[xlv]

(June 19, 1828 - July 26, 1892)

Gabralter Lodge No. 325 I.C.

Initiated: June 3, 1857
W.M.: 1859

Bristol Societas Rosicruciana College.

Chief Adept (occult)

Frederick Leigh Gardner[xlvi]

(March 31, 1857 – 1930)

Montefiore Lodge No. 1017

Initiated: October 1886

Societas Rosicruciana

Occult Sciences

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn


Secretary General

Author (occult)

Member (occult)

Gerald Brosseau Gardner[xlvii]

(June 13, 1884 - February 12, 1964)

Listed here only to prevent mistaken identity with Frederick Leigh Gardner

Not A Mason

Gardnerian Wicca


John Yarker

(April 17, 1833 - March 20, 1913)

Lodge of Integrity No. 189  Manchester

Fidelity Lodge No. 623, Dunkinfield

Initiated: October 25, 1854

Affiliated: April 27, 1855
Worshipful Master, 1857

Oriental Rite of Memphis

Rite of Mizraim

Author (mystic)

Manly Palmer Hall

(March 18 1901 – 1990)

Jewel Lodge No. 374

Raised: November 22, 1954

Masonry, Hermeticism, Qabbalistic, Rosicrucianism,

Philosophical Research Society

Author (mystic)

Founder (mystic)

Paul Foster Case[xlviii]

(October 3, 1884 - March 2, 1954)

Fairport Lodge No. 476, Fairport, New York.

Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles

Raised: June 28, 1926


Affiliated: September 5, 1944

Builders of the Adytum (B.O.T.A.)

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Founder (occult)

Member (occult)

Roy Matthew Mitchell[xlix]

(1884 – 1944)

Ashlar Lodge, Toronto

Initiated: 1910

Blavatsky Institute of Canada

Founder (occult)

Samuel Liddel  MacGreggor Mathers[l]

(January 8, 1854 - November 20, 1918)

Lodge of Hengest No. 195, Bournemouth, UK

Raised: 30 January 1878


Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Author (occult)

William Wynn Wescott

(December 17, 1848 - July 30, 1925)

Parrett and Axe Lodge No. 814, Crewkerne, Somersetshire

Initiated: October 24, 1871
Master: 1877

Master: Quatuor Coronati Lodge (1893 & 1903)

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (HOGD)

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia

Co-founder (occult)

Administrator (occult)

*Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie[li]

(October 31, 1833 - 1886)[lii]

Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, No. 2,  Edinburgh, Scotland [liii]

Raised  January 19, 1870

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (HOGD)



Author (occult)

Spiritualist (occult)

Frederick Hockley[liv]

(October 13. 1808 – November 10, 1885)

British Lodge No. 8, London

Alnwick Lodge No. 1167, Northumberland

Raised March 21, 1864.


Master : Emulation Lodge of Improvement (1867)

Fratres Lucis

Catoptromancy (scrying)


Author  (occult)

 Spiritualist (occult)

Rev. W.A.

Ayton [lvi]

Quatuor Coronati Lodge

Co-founder 1886[lvii]


Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn


Rev. A.F.A. Woodford[lix]

( - 1888)

SRIA Required Masonic Membership as a Prerequisite


Swedenborggian, [lx]

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA)

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn[lxi]

Author (occult)

Robert Wentworth Little

(1840 - April 11, 1878)

SRIA Required Masonic Membership as a Prerequisite


Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA)

Rite of Misraim

Ancient Order of Druids in America (AODA), renamed Ancient Masonic Order of Druids (AMOD) in 1886

Founder (occult)

*Alphonse-Louis Constant (A.K.A. Eliphas Levi)

(February 11, 1810 - May 31, 1875)

Lodge Rose du Parfait Silence

Grand Orient of France, Paris.

Initiated: 14 March, 1861

Raised: August 21, 1861

Transcendental Magic[lxii]

Author (occult)


            Occult and esoteric involvement has often been downplayed by the Craft and relegated to a category of activity referred to as “Fringe Masonry”, in which the participants are painted as either charlatans or as slightly delusional. This is of course a response to the use of this historical data by those promoting an anti-Masonic agenda. The truth is that the interest of these Freemasons in the occult needs to be considered in a purely historical context. This context includes consideration of the social and cultural influences which gave rise to the revival and the fact that during the period in which this revival flourished Freemasons were joined in their pursuit of esoteric and occult knowledge by members of the mainstream Clergy[lxiii], by Monarchs and Politicians, and many others. Thus the occult revival was not the exclusive purview of Freemasonry. Many detractors of Freemasonry would do well to re-read the definition of occult offered at the beginning of this paper, where they will find that theology is itself listed as an occult activity. 

            The occult revival of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries was a unique period in the history of mankind. Doubtless, there will be future revivals of this same sort as mankind encounters waves of unremitting change and turmoil, from which is sought solace, personal control, and new answers to the age-old questions: “What am I ? Whence come I ? Whither go I ? “[lxiv].  The answers may ultimately surprise us all.

[i] Kyle, Richard. The Occult Roars Back: It’s Modern Resurgence. Direction Journal. Fall 2000. Vol. 29, No 2. Pp 91-99.

[ii] Laurent, Jean-Pierre in Partridge, Christopher H. The Re-Enchantment of the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2004. pp. 68-69. ISBN:0567082695.

[iii] Esoteric. Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press 1964, 1976, 1982, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2004.

[iv] Lomas, Robert. Freemasonry and the Birth of Modern Science. Fair Winds Press. 2003. ISBN-10: 1592330118 ISBN-13: 978-159233

[v] Esoteric. Concise Oxford English Thesaurus. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press 1995, 2002.

[vi] Barnes, Arthur. Discipline of the Secret. Transcribed by Hugh J.F. McDonald. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. 2008.

[vii] Grossinger, Richard. The Alchemical Tradition through the late 20th Century. Io. 31. North Atlantic. 1983. p.240

[viii]  Clark, Rawn. Defining Hermeticism. 2002 from A Bardon Companion. Accessed March 15, 2008.

[ix] Redgrove, H. Stanley. Alchemy: Ancient and Modern. London: Rider, 1922. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1969.

[x] Alchemy as a proto-chemistry. Accessed March 5, 2008.

[xi] Introduction to Alchemical Symbolism. Accessed March 8, 2008.

[xii] Smedley, Edward, W. C. Taylor, Henry Thompson, and Elihu Rich. The Occult Sciences. London and Glasgow: Richard Griffin, 1855

[xiii] Collins, Rodney. The Theory of Celestial Influence. London: Stuart & Watkins, 1955.

[xiv] Levi, Eliphas. Transcendental Magic: Its Doctrine and Ritual. Translated, annotated
and introduced by Arthur Edward Waite. Weiser Books; New Ed edition (June 1968). pp 12 -13.
ISBN-10: 0877280797 ISBN-13: 978-0877280798.

[xv] Waite, Arthur E. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. London: George Redway. 1898. Reprinted as The Book of Ceremonial Magic. London: William Rider & Sons, 1911. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961. Reprint, New York: Bell Publishing, 1969.

[xvi] Waite, Arthur Edward. The Pictorial Key to the Tarot: Being Fragments of a Secret Tradition Under the Veil of Divination. William Rider & Sons. London.1911. pp. 12-33.

[xvii] Huson, Paul (2004). Mystical Origins of the Tarot: From Ancient Roots to Modern Usage. Vermont: Destiny Books. ISBN 0892811900.

[xviii] "catoptromancy." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. The Gale Group, Inc, 2001. 09 March. 2008.

[xix] Ibid. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. The Gale Group, Inc, 2001. 09 March. 2008.

[xx]  Topham, I. Magic and the Occult of Britain.2000. Accessed March 21, 2008.

[xxi] Bodoff, Lippman, Jewish Mysticism: Medieval Roots, Contemporary Dangers and Prospective Challenges. The Edah Journal 2003. Accessed March 3, 2008.

[xxii] Gruber, Hermann. Rosicrucians. The New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. 2008. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xxiii] Yates, Frances A. The Rosicrucian Enlightnment, London & Edighoffer, Roland. 1972. (I-1982, II-1987)

[xxiv] Waite, Arthur E. The Real History of the Rosicrucians - Founded on their own Manifestos, and on facts and Documents collected from the writings of Initiated Brethren. (1887). London, p.408

[xxv] R.A. Gilbert. The Golden Dawn: Twilight of the magicians, the Rise and Fall of a Magical Order. 1983. pp. 15. Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-278-1.

[xxvi] Gilbert, R.A. Cipher to Enigma: The Role of William Wynn Westcott in the Creation of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, from Runyon, Carrol. Secrets of the Golden Dawn Cypher Manuscripts. C.H.S; 1st ed edition (March 15, 1997). ISBN-10: 0965488128 ISBN-13: 978-0965488129 .

[xxvii] Ordo Templis Orientis. Thelemapedia. The Encyclopedia of Thelema and Maigick.

[xxviii] History of Ordo Templis Orientis. U.S. Grand Lodge Ordo Templis Orientis.2006. Accessed March 29, 2008.

[xxix] Prescott, Andrew. The Cause of Humanity: Charles Bradlaugh and Freemasonry. 2003. Accessed March 19, 2008. Also Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. Accessed March 19, 2008.

[xxx] Bruce F. Campbell: Ancient Wisdom Revived, a History of the Theosophical Movement. 1980. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-03968-8.

[xxxi] Builders of The Adytum. Builders of the Adytum, Ltd. 2008. Accessed March 30, 2008.

[xxxii] Masonic Traveler. B.O.T.A. – Builders of the Adytum. Accessed March 28, 2008.

[xxxiii] Stichting Argus. Freemasonry and Fraternal Orders. 2008. Accessed March 31, 2008.

[xxxiv] McCloud Reeves, Betty Jean. A.O.D.A History. Accessed March 31, 2008.

[xxxv]  Kyle, Richard. The Occult Roars Back: It’s Modern Resurgence. Direction Journal. Fall 2000. Vol. 29, No 2. Pp 91-99.

[xxxvi] ibid. The Occult Roars Back: It’s Modern Resurgence. Direction Journal. Fall 2000. Vol. 29, No 2. Pp 91-99.

[xxxvii]  DeHoyos, Art and S. Brent Morris. Freemasonry in Context: History, Ritual, Controversy. Lexington Books. 2004. ISBN:073910781X.

[xxxviii] Biographies. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xxxix] Denslow, William R., 10,000 Famous Freemasons, 4 vol., Missouri Lodge of Research,Trenton, Missouri, 1957-61. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xl]  R. A. Gilbert. The One Deep Student, a life of Arthur Edward Waite. Wellingborough: 1987. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xli] Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Vol. 91 (1978) pp. 28-46. Also see notes from Sexuality, Magic and Perversion, Francis King. New English Library, Times Mirror. 1972, p. 92. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xlii] Howe, Ellic and Moller, Helmut. "Theodor Reuss. Irregular Freemasonry in Germany", 1900-23, Ars Quatuorum Coronatorum Vol. 91, 1978.

[xliii] Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Vol. 85 (1972) pp. 242-95. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xliv] Chacornac, Paul. Éliphas Lévi, rénovateur de l'occultisme en France (1810-1875), 1926. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xlv] Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Vol. 85 (1972) pp. 242-95. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xlvi] Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Vol. 100 (1987) p. 19n. .

[xlvii] Bracelin, Jack L. Gerald Gardner, Witch, (Idries Shah) 1970. Also see Philip Heselton, Wiccan Roots and Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration.

[xlviii]  Membership archives of the Grand Lodge, F. & A.M. of California; from Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[xlix] The Square, R.J. Templeton, ed., Vancouver, BC, December, 1923, p. 8. From Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 23, 2008.

[l] Masonic Biographies. Samuel MacGregor Liddel Mathers. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 26, 2008.

[li] Foster, Robert Fitzroy. W.B. Yeats: A Life. Oxford University Press. 2003. pp103. ISBN:0192880853.

[lii] Howe, Ellic.  Urania’s Children: The Strange World of the Astrologers 1967, pp. 33-47

[liii] Fringe Freemasonry in England 1870-85. Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati odhe No. 2076, London. ; from Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Accessed March 26, 2008.

[liv] ibid. W.B. Yeats: A Life. Oxford University Press. 2003. pp.104. ISBN:0192880853.

[lv] Hamill, J The Rosicrucian Seer: The Magical Writings of Frederick Hockley. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, UK: Aquarian Press. 1986. from Scarborough, Samuel. Frederick Hockley: A Hidden Force behind the 19th Century English Occult Revival. Journal of the Western Mystery Tradition No. 14, Vol. 2. Vernal Equinox 2008.

[lvi] Howe, E. The Alchemist of the Golden Dawn, The Letters of Revd. W.A. Ayton to F.L. Gardner and Others 1886-1905. 1985.Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, UK: Aquarian Press. pp. 37.

[lvii] MQ Magazine. Masonic Education. Issue 11, October 2004

[lviii]  Howe, E. Fringe Masonry in England, 1870 – 1885. 1997. pp. 105. Edmonds, WA: Holmes Publishing Group.

[lix] McIntosh, Christopher, The Rosicrucians: The History, Mythology, and Rituals of an Esoteric Order (Weiser, 1998, ISBN 0-87728-920-4.

[lx] Foster, Robert Fitzroy. W.B. Yeats: A Life. Oxford University Press. 2003. pp104. ISBN:0192880853.

[lxi] Owen, Alex. The Place of Enchantment: British Occultism and the Culture of the Modern. University of Chicago Press. 2004. pp. 53. ISBN:0226642011

[lxii] Chacornac, Paris.  Éliphas Lévi. The Book of the Wise Ones, Posthumous Works. 1912.  pp. 13.

[lxiii]  Benson, A.C. Life of Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury. London. from Aho, Barbara. The Nineteenth Century Occult Revival: The Legacy of Westcott and Hort.

[lxiv] Wilmhurst, Walter Leslie. The Meaning of Masonry. pp. 29. Barnes & Noble Publishing. 1999. ISBN:0760710929

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