a previously published article[i] the theory was advanced
that the symbol of the Masonic Square and Compasses may have a concealed meaning
beyond the recognized allegorical or metaphoric meanings ascribed to it by
ritual and tradition. In the cited
article, the source of this hidden meaning is proposed as being a cipher which
makes use of the Freemasons Magic Square[ii]
as a visual key. This theory is
based in part upon consideration of the fact that Freemasonry is rich in
examples of ciphers in which visual elements play a key role. One of these
examples is the so called Rosicrucian Cipher[iii]
shown in Figure 1 below; another is the Freemasons Cipher[iv]
(Figure 2) which many York Rite Masons will find especially familiar and which
is an adaptation of the cipher originally devised by the Rosicrucians.
paper is a further development of the theory which was espoused in the original
Pietre-Stones article. The author has attempted in this work to avoid repeating
unnecessary details which may be found in the initial article, especially those
details concerning how my interest in this topic originated and how the research
progressed. It does however review the concept of Magic Squares, Sigils, and
Gematria in sufficient breadth to acquaint the reader with the basis of our
proposed theory. I might add that the original article described using a
Pythagorean chart as one method for ascertaining the existence of a hidden
meaning within the symbol of the square and compasses. Although presented as a
methodology, no specific results of applying that method were provided. The
reader will find those results (which were incomplete at the time the initial
paper was submitted) published here. Additionally, much work has been done using
other methods and by expanding certain elements of the original theory.
basic assertion is that the square and compasses symbol may represent a Sigil
which was developed using the Freemasons’ Magic Square, and that this Sigil
conveys hidden meaning.
all of this seems improbable to the reader, please allow me to quote Bro. Manly
eminent Mason and Masonic author on this matter:
are hidden in the most subtle manner: they may be concealed within the watermark
of a piece of paper upon which a book is printed; they may be bound into the
covers of ancient books; they may be hidden under imperfect pagination; they may
be extracted from the first letters of words or the first words of sentences;
they may be concealed in mathematical equations or in apparently unintelligible
figures … If those interested in Freemasonic research would give serious
consideration to this subject they might find in the books and manuscripts of
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the information necessary to bridge the
gap in Masonic history that now exists between the Mysteries of the ancient
world and the Craft Masonry of the past three centuries.”
The Freemasons’ Magic Square
understand the premise of this paper, one first needs to understand what a Magic
Square is (or more specifically what the Freemasons’ Magic Square is). A Magic
Square is an array of an equal number of rows and columns containing numbers
which are arranged so that the sum of any row is also equal to the sum of any
column in that square. Additionally, the sum of either of the two diagonals of
the square also equals the sum of either a row or column in the square. The
Freemasons’ Magic Square (Figure 3 below) is a 3 X 3 made up of three rows and
three columns. Try adding the numbers in each of the three individual rows. They
all add up to the number 15. If you add the numbers in each separate column,
each column adds to 15. If you add the numbers across the diagonals of the array,
they too will equal 15. The sum of all of the numbers, from 1 to 9, in the
square is 45 (Figure 4). The Freemasons’ Magic Square probably predates
Masonry, and is found in documents as ancient as the I Ching[vi],
(2800 B.C.) where it is known as the Lo Shu Square. During the middle ages in Europe this square was often
associated with the Kabalah and it was sometimes referred to as the Saturn
As a matter of
interest, Magic Squares may also be constructed using letters instead of numbers,
in which case the letters produce words or phrases which may be read much like
an acrostic. One famous example[viii]
is the so called “Templar Magic Square”, a 5 X 5 (or order of 5) matrix
which arranges the words in the
Latin sentence "Sator Arepo tenet opera rotas" in a Magic Square
format (See Figure 5). This Magic Square was found in the ruins of Pompei. If
this Magic Square was indeed developed by the Templars, it is probable that it
was used in some fashion to manufacture ciphers.
Variations of the
There are a number of variations (eight to be exact) of the 3 X 3 Magic
Square which may be created using the same integer numbers from 1 to 9 as those
which are used in the Freemasons’ Magic Square, but which are placed in a
different order or position in the square matrix. Only that Magic Square using
the number locations shown in Figure 3 is known as the Freemasons’ Magic
Square. This leads me to believe that this
ordering is somehow important or significant for its’ Masonic purpose. The
Freemasons’ Magic Square may also be produced using Hebrew Characters which
represent the numbers 1 through 9. This variation is shown in Figure 6. It is also interesting to note, that the Freemasons’ Magic
Square is often drawn using two squares (instead of
a box or boxes), one square
diagonally overlapping the other, or within the symbol of the Star of David, in
which case it is known as the Tetragrammaton[ix].
During my later discussion, the variation of the Freemasons’ Magic
Square in which Hebrew characters (Fig. 6) are used will be found to be of
is a sign or symbol created for a specific, usually
magical, purpose. The term sigil derives from the Latin sigilum meaning
"seal," though it may also be related to the Hebrew
סגולה (segulah) meaning "word, action
or item of spiritual effect".
Sigilia are commonly found in Jewish mysticism. Sigils
are sometimes created using magic squares by first converting a name, word, or
phrase to numerical form using Number-Alphabet substitution methods or Gematria.
This numerical translation is then traced on the magic square using a straight
continuous line for each word or phrase and drawn from number-to-number in the
exact sequence in which the corresponding letters were arranged. Sigils are
classified as Pictographic ciphers when used to encode messages. The process of interpreting a Sigil is that of reverse
construction, namely to determine the word or phrase based upon the numbers
which are connected on the Magic Square.
ciphers involving magic squares, one very common usage of a Sigil is to identify
the specific Magic Square used to generate the code, thus producing a nominal
key. Each magic square of a given order or size (3 X 3, 4 X 4, etc.) can be
identified by the distinctive pattern of a Sigil constructed by connecting the
numbers in that magic square by a line in numerical sequence (i.e. first 1, then
2, 3, etc.). The Sigil key identifying the Magic Square used for encoding and
the Sigil for the encoded message may be transmitted to the intended recipient
either together or separately. The
Sigil which identifies the Freemasons’ Magic Square is called the Sigil of
(as previously mentioned, the Freemasons’ Magic Square is often called the
Saturn Square). Figure 7 illustrates the Sigil of Saturn. Note the distinctive
symmetry of this Sigil, which typifies the Freemasons’ Magic Square, and many
other magic squares as well.
is the premise of this paper that the symbol of the Masonic Square and Compasses
is such a Sigil, and that the meaning of this Sigil might be determined by such
reverse construction. To illustrate the concept of the Sigil, I have traced the Square and
Compasses on the Freemasons’ Magic Square. Figure 8 presents this with the
Letter “G” substituted for the number 5 in the Magic Square.
the numbers which are connected by each line, we may identify the numbers 8, 9,
6 and 3, 1, 7 as our cipher numbers or alternately 6, 9 ,8
and 7, 1, 3 (since we don’t know if we should start from the left or
right end of the Sigil).
origin and meaning of the letter “G” in the center of the Square and
Compasses is a matter of considerable discussion within Masonic circles[xii],[xiii].
Early versions of the Masonic Square and Compasses can be found which use a
Pentagram instead, and still others may be found which use the Greek letter
Gamma. In modern
examples exist in which the Square and Compasses have no center symbol or letter,
as well as those in which the letter G is presented in a very ornate manner as a
part of the Square and Compasses symbol, but not in the center position. As will be seen the author has made some assumptions
concerning the letter “G” when used in the Center of the Square and
Compasses. In the interest of thoroughness, I have also evaluated the Square and
Compasses symbol, ignoring the “G”. The evolution of the Square and
Compasses from a simple line drawn Sigil to an elaborate illustration in which
the Square is sometimes shown with graduation markings, and the Compasses are
shown complete with sharp pointed ends and a swivel joint at the apex is not
surprising. Sigils are frequently decorated or embellished after initial
creation. As you look at the Square
and Compasses Sigil, note that the pattern, like the pattern for the Sigil of
Saturn, is distinctly symmetric. An imaginary vertical line drawn down the
center of the Sigil may help you to visualize this striking bilateral symmetry.
Symmetry of this sort is a defining characteristic of classical art work.
first task at hand was to determine if there was any obvious symbolic meaning in
either or both of the two numerical sequences using the conventions of
numerology. Numerology is based
upon the premise that certain numbers have sacred or other symbolic meaning, and
was a concept held in special regard by the Pythagoreans. One of the most common
operations in numerology (and sometimes of Gematria as discussed later) is to
reduce the multiple numbers in each word or phrase to a single number by simple
and to then evaluate the possible meaning of each word or phrase by finding
similarities between the reduced number sequences.
numbers 8, 9, and 6 therefore may be added together to produce the (intermediate
sum) double digit number 23 (8 + 9 + 6 =
23). The double digit 23 may then be further reduced to the (final sum) single
digit number of 5 (2 + 3 = 5). In a similar fashion, the numbers 3, 7, and 1 may
be reduced to a double digit of 11; and 11 may be further reduced as 1 + 1 = 2.
Notice that the intermediate sums of both 8, 9, and 6 (the number 23) and
of 3, 1, and 7 (the number 11) are both prime numbers, i.e. neither can be
evenly divided by any integer besides itself and 1). I also found it interesting
that the two final sums (single digit) for each of the two words or phrases (2
and 5) if added together are equal to 7, the number associated with completeness[xv].
In fact, if the two intermediate sums (namely 23 and 11) are added together the
result is 34; and if the number 34 is then reduced using numerological
convention, 3 + 4 also equals 7.
This implies, if the makers of the Sigil were familiar with Numerology,
which is a distinct possibility, then the first word and second word are
“complete” per numerology whether used in the final reduced form or the
intermediate reduced form. It is also interesting, although not necessarily
significant for our purposes, that the first word or phrase has a final reduced
numerical value of 5. For the Freemasons’ square, the number 5 is both
positioned in the center of the square matrix, and is also the mathematical mean
of the sum of all the numbers in the square (45 / 9 = 5). The number 5 also
corresponds to the Hebrew character “Heh”, which is one of the ineffable
There are also some interesting speculative interpretations which may be
drawn from the numerological calculations discussed above. The Pythagoreans and
others considered odd numbers to be masculine and even numbers to be feminine[xvi].
The numbers 3 and 4 obviously fit the male/female pair concept and when added
yield 7, the number of completeness. The same may be said of the first order
reduction of 23 and 11 to the numbers 5 and 2. The number two is considered a
“perfect” number since it is the first even number. The number five is
likewise a perfect number since it is the sum of the perfect number 2 (the first
even number) and the perfect number 3 which is considered the first odd number.
Again the odd/even – masculine/feminine symbolism is present; and yet again 5
and 2 sum to 7 the number of completeness. This interpretation has been advanced
using methods other than numerology. The idea that the square and compasses
symbolize the male and female, and that together they represent the dual
masculine and feminine aspects of God (leading to completeness) has even been
included in the plot in a best selling modern novel. It is possible that this
interpretation has been communicated orally over the generations, and that this
concept is also being communicated in turn as a Sigil.
While numerological evaluations can be interesting and even fun to do,
this is only an intermediate step in determining the meaning of the Sigil. The
fact that our two numbers (words or phrases) when subjected to numerological
evaluation produced the number 7 as second order and final order reductions may
later be found to be more than coincidental.
English Alphabet Number Substitution
possible solution for the cipher would be for it to be a simple English language
number substitution. Simply put, this would be a case in which each number
corresponded directly to a letter in the English alphabet, which would in turn
spell a recognizable word. As related in the original article, a Pythagorean
Chart was selected as the basis for assigning alphabetic characters. A
Pythagorean chart certainly made sense in terms of both simplicity and the close
association of Freemasonry with Pythagorean concepts. A Pythagorean chart[xvii]
uses the letters from 1 to 9 (which also nicely matches the 9 numbers in our 3 X
3 Freemasons’ Magic Square) with the English alphabet arrayed in columns and
rows beneath it. Figure 9 shows a basic Pythagorean Chart.
each number comprising the two words or phrases could be assigned one of three
different letters using this system (except for the number 9, which could be
assigned only two letters). Adding
to the complexity of this system is the fact that many ciphers produced using
the Pythagorean Chart are “shifted” (the alphabet is moved left or right a
few spaces so that the A = 1, B = 2, etc. relationship is disrupted. If the
alphabet was shifted left two spaces (or columns) for example then C = 1 and D =
2) to make the cipher more
difficult to penetrate. Naturally, such ciphers required a key to indicate what
has been implemented. As noted previously, when the Square and Compasses is
overlaid on the Freemasons’ Magic Square, the “G” coincides with the 5 in
the center of the square. In my analysis we took this to be an indication that
the alphabet for this cipher had been shifted so that G = 5. I therefore
reordered the Pythagorean Chart as shown in Figure 10.
the numbers 8, 9, and 6 there are eighteen letter combinations possible, and for
the numbers 3, 1, and 7 there are 27 possible combinations. This does not take
into consideration that the letter combinations in each word or phrase might be
arranged backwards, since we don’t know in which direction the Sigil was drawn
(i.e. left to right, or right to left).
When this many combinations are possible, the most organized way of
developing and presenting all such combinations is by the use of a tree chart.
Figure 11 provides a tree chart which produces all possible combinations of
letters using the Pythagorean Chart and the numbers 8, 9, and 6. The tree chart
for the numbers 3, 1, and 7 is provided as Figure 12. As can be seen, the only
number for which a third row letter is unassigned is the number 9. Consequently
in Figure 11, there are only two tree branches where the number nine is
addressed. Figure 12, however uses all three letter rows for all three numbers
3, 1, and 7.
charts developed illustrate that there is no immediately obvious word or word(s)
which is (are) generated using this approach. The possibility remains of course
that one or more of these letter combinations represent(s) a sentence or phrase
for which only the first letter of each word in that phrase is shown. This would
be consistent with one of the three techniques of Literal Kabala known as
in which the individual letters of a word are taken as the initials of another
word or a sentence, or in which a sentence may be reduced to a word. The other
two techniques are Gematria (which
we shall discuss in greater detail) and Temurah, or permutation of letters
according to specific rules. This
technique would not be uncommon in Masonry. (We refer the reader to the Mark
Master Degree as an example).
the act of having shifted the Pythagorean Chart may have skewed the approach to
this problem, and a thorough examination demands that this possibility be
explored in more detail. Accordingly, a tree chart using the Pythagorean Chart
without an alphabet shift is shown for the numbers 8, 9, and 6 (Figure 13) and
for the numbers 3, 1, and 7 (Figure 14).
the daunting task of deciphering 162 letters which may represent an infinite
number of words in a phrase, and the fact that such a succinct phrase would
probably not be in grammatical Noun-Verb-Adverb form, the author decided to
develop a key word list which contains single words or key phrases the first
letter of which might correspond to the letters developed in the tree chart
analysis and which also embodied the concepts of Freemasonry and Masonic thought.
Such a keyword list would significantly narrow the task of assigning possible
meanings, but would of course ignore words which (by virtue of their absence
from the list) might very well be relevant. This is a calculated risk but one
which is reluctantly necessary. The keyword list is currently under development
and should this approach prove fruitful the results will be published at a later
date. We invite readers to submit suggestions for the keyword list to the Author.
It also occurred to me that I could apply the data from our numerological
evaluation in conjunction with the Pythagorean Chart to evaluate whether the
intermediate numbers 23 and 11 might have significant meaning. This turned out
to be a rather enlightening experience. The tree
charts were not used in this evaluation in any way and we used the Pythagorean
Chart version without the shifted “G” for my evaluation.
With the help of a spreadsheet we searched for combinations of the
alphabetic letters which when converted using the Pythagorean Chart would equal
either 23 or 11 when added together. We then discounted combinations which were
nonsensical and grouped the remaining words as adjectives, nouns, adverbs, and
verbs. It turned out that the possibilities were very manageable, and we were
able to immediately identify two words having a value of 23 and several with a
value of 11 which when used together represented a meaningful phrase. In this
case a meaningful phrase was one having Masonic significance. The first word
with a value of 23 determined to have possible significance was “Sacred”.
The second word with a value of 23 was “Hidden”. The words having a value of
11 which were selected as meaningful when placed together with the word
“Sacred” are “Walk”, “King”, “Life”, “God”, and “Jesus”. We found it most interesting that God, King, and Jesus all
have a numeric value of 11. The word having a value of 11 which was considered
to offer meaning (although a highly speculative one) when used with the word
“Hidden” is “Jesus”. Each of these word combinations is evaluated
further in the next few paragraphs.
The phrase “Sacred Walk” possibly alludes to the navigation of a
Labyrinths are ancient in origin, and much of how these devices were actually
applied has been lost. Most
follow a common design: a unicursal labyrinth, in which a single path leads
without any alternative to the centre. It is usually circular and formed on
concentric rings, often seven or eleven[xx].
Labyrinth, the Solomon Labyrinth, is believed to be representative of the layout
of the Temple of Solomon[xxi].
Early use of the Labyrinth by Christians is known to have resurfaced during the
middle ages, and that they were used during that time by penitents who walked
the path of the Labyrinth on their knees as an act symbolic of Pilgrimage[xxii].
Labyrinths were incorporated into Cathedrals and Churches in towns such as
Cathedral, and many others[xxiii]
during the 16th Century.
Labyrinths are also symbolic of the search for truth or enlightenment,
and are closely associated with both the Templars and with Freemasonry[xxiv],[xxv].
In the Co-Masonic Eastern Star organization, the Pentagram pattern is sometimes
“the Labyrinth”. As a point of interest, the Labyrinth of Solomon[xxviii]
has a center point, surrounded by 11 concentric circles (See Figure 15).
It also has 34 turns or bends. The reader will recall that the numbers 34
and 11 surfaced prominently in our original numerological evaluation.
phrase “Sacred King” may also be relevant in Masonic context. In both
pre-Christian and Christian cultures Kings were believed to have sacred status,
either as being gods themselves or as the offspring of god(s). Examples of this
are especially rich in early Egyptian culture, in which Pharos were believed to
be incarnations of Osiris or Horus. Divine
or sacred Kings typically have three defining characteristics[xxix]:
they are the receptacle of supernatural or divine power; they descend from
divine or semi-divine rulers; and they are agents or mediators of the sacred. In
the Christian religion Jesus’ sacred status as the Son of God begotten through
the Virgin Mary figures prominently in his cultural right to be considered King
of the Jews, a qualification perhaps even more important than his royal lineage
through the House of David. I
mention this here because it figures into my evaluation of the next phrase.
phrase “Sacred Jesus” is believed relevant to our evaluation of meanings
since Freemasonry (especially during the middle-ages) evolved and flourished
under European Christianity. In lifting up this particular phrase as significant
the author is especially aware that I may myself be guilty of operating with a
Christian bias. I do however believe I am correct in stating that in Freemasonry
there is scant evidence that the current tolerance for and acceptance of faiths
other than those based upon Judeo-Christian principles existed in any widespread
way much before the early 19th Century.
The Phrase “Sacred God” was considered and then dismissed as being a
redundant word combination since the source of that which is sacred is in fact
God. The phase “Hidden
Jesus”, as previously noted, only gives meaning in the most highly speculative
way - namely that it refers to either the body of Jesus being hidden, or that
Jesus himself was at some time hidden. This
of course brings to mind popular novels which promote the theory that Christ
survived the Crucifixion and was hidden in France, as well as the similar theory
that a conspiracy existed to hide the body of Christ, and that the resurrection
is therefore a myth.
was decided that it would be prudent to move along and to try the next
most-likely method of determining possible meaning (English Gematria), and to
revisit the concept of finding words or phrases which correspond to the letters
from our treecharts (Notariqon) later.
Gematria is based upon a system identical to those of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic
Gematria, in which individual numerical values are assigned to individual
letters of the alphabet, and words or phases are assigned total values by
summing the value of the letters of which they are comprised. Words or phrases
having identical numerical values are considered equivalent and interchangeable.
My goal has been to convert the alphabetic combinations developed using our tree
charts to English letter Gematria values, and to do the same with words in my
keywords listing. Possible meaning would be deduced based upon word/phrase
equivalence. My analysis using the numerical values 23 and 11 in association
with the corresponding letters in the Pythagorean Chart was in fact a type of
There are several systems of English Gematria, however two currently
are the EQ-1 and the EQ-11. Both systems are based upon English Qabala (hence
EQ), and are similar in usage. Figure
16 provides a key to EQ-I and EQ-II values for various letters of the English
the values in Figure 16, each of the letter groups developed using the tree
charts were converted to both EQ-1 and EQ-II Gematria values. Figure 17 provides
results for the numbers 8, 9, and 6 using the shifted Pythagorean Chart while
Figure 18 provides values for the numbers 3, 1, and 7, again using the shifted
the EQ-I and EQ-II Gematria letter values for 8, 9, and 6 were computed using
the normal Pythagorean Chart
(Figure 19) and for the letter values of 3, 1, and 7, again using the normal
Pythagorean Chart (Figure 20).
an example of how Gematria works, we can use the name “God” and convert it
to a numerical value using EQ-I and EQ-II Gematria (refer to Figure 16):
word “God” using EQ-I is 7 + 15 + 4 = 26
word “God” using EQ-II is 11 + 7 + 6 = 25
that the convention of Hebrew Gematria is that any numerical value may be used
as-is, or that one may be added or subtracted from that value for the purpose of
interpretation. The close equivalence of the numbers 25 and 26 in this context
is interesting. The same convention also uses the value of 5 (Heh) as symbolic
of God, as it does any power of 5 (52 = 25). As will be apparent in
later discussions, EQ-I and EQ-II are a very close approximation of classic
The letter combinations obtained from our tables developed using the
shifted Pythagorean Chart having the value of 25 are ECR and NCI. No letter
groups have a value of 26. Therefore using EQ-I there are two letter groupings
which may represent the word “God” and both of these groups are in the
letter groupings produced by the “Square” portion of the Sigil.
The table representing the Compasses portion of the Sigil produced using
the shifted Pythagorean Chart has no letter groups with a value of 25 or 26.
Consequently the Compasses do not represent “God”. This is not to say that
other sacred words or Masonic meanings aren’t present. The numbers 25 or 26
appear in the tables prepared using the normal Pythagorean Chart only for the
letters CAG (using the EQ-II system). Interestingly this value also appears in
the table representing the “Square” portion of the Sigil.
of the antiquity of the Square and Compasses symbol, an additional evaluation
was undertaken using a third system of English language Gematria, namely that
developed by Cornelius Agrippa[xxxi]
circa 1550, which dates to the period preceding the formation of the Royal
Society and which is contemporary to the period during which the symbol of the
Square and Compasses began to appear with regularity. Agrippas’ key to English
Gematria is provided as Figure 21, below.
tables providing Gematria values for each of the letter combinations in our
normal Pythagorean Chart using Agrippas’ key is provided in Figure 22 and 23.
extensive discussion of Gematria and the role of Hebrew, Greek (Greek
Gematria is referred to as Isopsephy[xxxii]),
Arabic, and English Gematria, and specifically Agrippas’ Key can be seen in
the work of William Strirling (A.K.A. William Shakespeare) [xxxiii]
in “The Cannon”. Note that
Stirling/Shakespeare is widely thought to be Francis Bacon.
The task of matching the Gematria values of our letter sequences with key
words from our list having equal values to the computed values for EQ1, EQ2, and
Agrippas’ Key will be done by computer processing. The author is developing a
spreadsheet using Visual Basic programming code which will develop the matches
for us. In the interim, I used a Gematria calculator[xxxiv]
which generates English language meanings using a key word list developed
primarily from Biblical and Hebrew Scriptural sources. This calculator is by far
the most complete which I have found thus far. The full analysis performed using
this calculator is far too lengthy to be included in this paper, however I have
chosen those results which I found to be most interesting and compiled them in
Figure 24 and Figure 25.
The readers’ Attention is drawn to the fact that the word “Hidden”
derived by finding words having a value of 23 using the Pythagorean Chart, and
the word “Concealed” have essentially identical meaning. Even more
interesting is that the word “Life” is found to have a value of 11 in both
our Pythagorean Chart evaluation as well as our evaluation using Agrippas’
Gematria. I don’t believe that it
is a coincidence that both systems of evaluation produce substantially identical
results. The question which arises of course, is who is being referred to as
having (or having had) a hidden life ?
Burkle, William. Speculation on the Symbol of the Square and Compasses.
Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry,
Mackey, Albert Gallatin. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Part 2. ( ED. H L
Haywood), pp 610-12. isbn 0766147207.
Janeczko, Paul B. Top Secret : a handbook of codes, ciphers, and secret
writing. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA : Candlewick Press, 2004. pp 182-83. ISBN:
0763609714 9780763609719 9780763609719 0763609714
Hall, Manly Palmer. The Secret Teachings of All Ages.(1928). H.S. Crocker
& Company, San Francisco.
Wikipedia. Online Internet Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square#The_
Weisstein, Eric W. "Templar Magic Square."
From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TemplarMagicSquare.html.
Albert Gallatin. The Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and It’s Kindred Sciences.
"sigil." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
“sigil." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. The Gale Group,
Cockburn, John A. The Letter G.Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge
No. 2076, UGLE in Volume 10 for the year 1897. [p. 40.]
Morris, Brent S. Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. Masonic Papers.
The Letter G. September 1992. The Plumbline, Vol 1. No. 3, 2001.
Barrett, David V.
Numerology. Dorling Kindersley, London,
England. 1995. ISBN 0789403072
Pietre Stones Review of Freemasonry. The Square and Compasses: In
search of Freemasonry. Chapter Twenty Eight, The Symbolism of Seven and Other
Mathematics Project.http://nichich.maths.org. 2003.
University of Cambridge.
Accessed April 25, 2007
Peters, Gregory H. The Stone Which The Builders Refused, Pietre-Stones Review
of Freemasonry, http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/stone_refused.html
accessed May 10, 2007.
Holistic Healing. http://healing.about.com/od/labyrinths/Labyrinths_Sacred_Walk.htm,
New York Times Company, April 25, 2007.
Hicks, Clive. The Way of the Labyrinth, Freemasonry Today, April 2002, Issue
Aleff, Peter H. RediscoveredScience.com.
http://www.recoveredscience.com/LabySolomon1.htm. April 24, 2007
Lessons for Living.com http://www.lessons4living.com/chartres_labyrinth.htm
April 25, 2007
Labyrinth Society. April 24,
Manly P. Hall. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. Philosophic Research Society,
Ward, Dan Sewell. Labyrinths. Halexandria
Beulah H. Malone. Let There Be Light.
Macoy, Robert. Adoptive Rite Ritual; Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star,
published by the authority of the General Grand Chapter Order of the Eastern
Barb, A. Mensa Sacra: The Round Table
and the Holy Grail.
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld
Institutes. Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Jun., 1956), pp. 40-67
Rick. Definition of Divine kingship. (Spring 1997). Buried
Cities and Lost Tribes. http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/godkings/divking2.html
. Accessed May 21, 2007.
Le Rose Blanc. http://www.leroseblanche.org/Pages/wakanaba1.htm
Agrippa, Henry Cornelius. Three Books of Occult Philosophy, Chapter 20. (Ed.
Donald Tyson). Llewellyn. 2000.
Bull, Peter. Cabala – Missing Key to the Secrets of Freemasonry.
http://www.masoncode.com/Masonry%20and%20Cabala.htm Accessed May 14, 2007.
Stirling, William. The Canon - An Exposition of
the Pagan Mystery Perpetuated in the Cabala as the Rule of all the Arts,
London, 1897. (Ed John Michell)The Garnstone
Press, London, 1974.
Ozkan, Selim. Evolutio Rodurago (2006) http://www.rodurago.de/en/index.php?site=details&link=cabbalah&language=search#results.
Accessed May 25, 2007.