During the early 17th Century, there was a resurgence[I]
of popular interest in Christian Mysticism in the form of Rosicrucianism.
Rosicrucianism presented Mysticism in allegorical form, applying a mixture of
esoteric traditions and symbolism from disparate cultures to achieve a new
contextual understanding of Christianity. The tenets of the Hebrew Kabala, were
of particular importance in the formulation of Rosicrucian doctrine, and were
seamlessly integrated with Christian Mysticism as a part of the Rosicrucian
belief system. One of the more interesting fusions of Hebrew and Christian
Mysticism involved the extension of the Tetragrammaton, the ineffable name of
G_d, into the Pentagrammatron, the Hebrew characters used to represent the name
of Jesus. By further extension, this fusion came to include the transformation
of the Adam Kadmon symbolically portrayed using the four Hebrew characters of
the Tetragrammaton into the Adam Kadmon, formed using the five characters of the
Pentagrammaton. This paper deals with this process of fusion and transformation
and with its underlying basis.
will forewarn the reader that much of what I have written here about Mysticism,
The Kabala, and even the Tetragrammaton is an historical account as opposed to a
technical discussion of these topics. This is because I wish to convey that
Rosicrucianism evolved when it did because preexisting events aligned to make it
possible; said another way, the time was ripe. I will also mention that although
I have chosen to concentrate upon the Hebrew-Christian aspect of the mystical
fusion which occurred within Rosicrucianism, it (Rosuicruianism) was the mixing
vessel for many other Oriental and Occidental traditions (i.e. Platonic, Sufism,
Vedic) as well.
Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct (i.e. personal) experience
usually add that in mysticism this direct knowledge of God, spiritual truth, or
ultimate reality can be attained only through subjective experience (i.e. by
intuition or insight) as opposed to intellect alone. The concept of mysticism is
by its very nature somewhat difficult to define; it is reported[IV]
that in 1899 William Ralph Inge, Dean of St. Pauls Cathedral was able to devise
more than twenty-six different definitions, which he called "specimens" of
possible meanings for the word "mysticism". In early
mystical experiences were typically described as "apokalypsis," an "apocalypse"
or "revelation." or as waking visions, dreams, trances and auditory events which
frequently involve spirit possession and ascent journeys.
Many such events were self-induced[VI]
(i.e. those of Montanus circa 156 A.D). The term "mysticism" derives from a
treatise entitled The Mystical Theology,
written in the sixth century A.D. by a Neo-Platonist Christian monk, Dionysius
the Areopagite, a.k.a. Pseudo-Dionysius or St. Denys the Areopagite[VII].
Dionysius the Areopagite was doubtless influenced by Philo of Alexandria[VIII]
(Philo Judaeus, circa 20-50 B.C.) who developed the doctrines of Ecstasy and
Enthusiasm. The Greek word "Ecstasy" means literally "standing outside oneself",
and combined with the doctrine of "Enthusiasm", literally meaning "to possess
the divine", a system of enlightenment is formed which lies in the realm of
basis for Christian mysticism is often cited to be contained in three primary
passages of New Testament scripture. These include[IX]
Galatians 2:20: "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but
Christ liveth in me, and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the
faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.";
John 3:2: "Beloved, now we are the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what
we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for
we shall see him as he is.";
II Peter 1:4: "...exceedingly great
and precious promises (are given unto us); that by these ye might be partakers
of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through
Christian mysticism is as old as Christianity itself, its predecessor, Hebrew
Mysticism, is believed to be far older. The Scriptural basis for Hebrew
Mysticism is contained in many passages of the Torah (Pentateuch of the Old
Testament) such as those in which God "strolled in the Garden" with Adam, and
when Moses communed with God on Sinai.
source for Hebrew Mysticism is considered to be the literature of the Kabala, of
which the collective works known as the Zohar are considered the most important.
The mystic allegory in the Zohar is based upon the principle that all visible
things, including natural phenomena, have both an exoteric reality and an
esoteric reality which informs Man in that which is invisible.
During the European Renaissance Mystics such as Roger Bacon, Raymond Lully,
Basil Valentine, and Giovanni Pico De Mirandola had worked to steadily refine
the principles of Christian Mysticism. Pico De Mirandola (1463-1494 A.D.) was
especially active in studying the Kabala[X]
under the direction of Jewish masters such as Jehuda Abravanel. Pico's work
directly influenced Johannes Reuchlin[XI]
(1455-1522) who wrote De Arte Cabalistica in 1517. It is Reuchlin who is
credited with the creation of the Pentagrammatron and Reuchlin who also first
associated Adam Kadmon with Tiferet on the Kabalistic Tree of Life[XII].
Christian Mystics (including
de Mirandola and Johannes Reuchlin) were likely attracted to the Zohar and
Hebrew Mysticism because they believed that the Zohar established the truth of
the Holy Trinity and the authenticity of Jesus as the Messiah. For example one
in the Zohar reads:
Ancient of Days has three heads. He reveals himself in three archetypes, all
three forming but one. He is thus symbolized by the number Three. They are
revealed in one another. (These are:) first, secret, hidden 'Wisdom'; above that
the Holy Ancient One; and above Him the Unknowable One. None knows what He
contains; He is above all conception He is therefore called for man
evolution of Christian Mysticism continued through the centuries. Cornelius
in 1531 wrote his "De Occulta Philosophia" (which associated Kabala with magic),
following which time the writings of Robert Fludd (1574-1637) and Thomas Vaughan
(1622-1666) appeared. The reader will recognize that the time period for the
active development of Christian Mysticism here begins to overlap the founding of
the Rosicrucian Order. It was during this time that Martines de Pasqually,
Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, Jakob Boehme, Baruch Spinoza, and Athanius
Kirchner began to contribute to Mystical philosophy. It was Kirchner who first
began to draw a parallel between Adam Kadmon and Jesus. While the historical
development of Christian Mysticism extends well beyond the late 17th
and 18th centuries, the period during which the accomplishments of
interest in this article were effected has (I believe) been satisfactorily
covered. By the time of the publication of The Confessio, The Fama, and The
Alchemical Marriage, Christian Mysticism had fully been realized in Rosicrucian
doctrine and imbued with a Westernized version of the Kabala.
Kabala, which is the Hebrew word[XV]
for "The Tradition" is an ancient system of mystical Hebrew wisdom which
allegedly existed as an oral tradition prior to being set into written form in
the 12th Century. The oral tradition is said to have been transmitted
to the Angels prior to the Creation. Mankind subsequently received it on three
separate occasions. The first recipient[XVI]
was Adam who received the Kabala from the Archangel Raziel at the time of the
fall. Abraham was the second (circa 1700 B.C)[XVII],
receiving it from Melchizedek. The knowledge of the Kabala was lost following
each of these transmissions. Moses was the third recipient, who was given the
Kabala on his second assent (the second encounter) of Mt. Sinai (following his
receipt of the Ten Commandments). Moses received four levels of interpretation[XVIII]
of the Kabala - (1) Pshat or simple, (2) Remez or illusion, (3) Drush homiletic
interpretation, and (4) Sod or the mystical dimension. Taken together these
words form the Acronym "PARDRS". Kabalists refer to Moses' receipt of The Ten
Commandments as the Outer Teaching (in which he received the written law, Torah
Shebichtav) , and the receipt of the Kabala as the Inner Teaching (in which he
received the oral tradition, Torah Shebaal Peh[XIX]).
Moses passed the Kabala to Joshua who perpetuated the mystical tradition.
written Kabala consists of several scrolls, including The Sepher Yetzirah, or
"Book of Formation" purportedly placed into writing by Rabbi Akiva, the Sefer
Bahir or the Book of Illumination, attributed[XX]
to Rabbi Nehunia ben haKana, and the Pirkei Heichalot Rabati (the Greater
Palaces) by Rabbi Ishmael[XXI]
. Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai (the Rashibi) subsequently added to the literature of
the Kabala, when receiving Divine Inspiration from the Prophet Elijah who
composed the sacred Zohar[XXII].
The Zohar (Book of Splendor) was later published by Rabbi Moshe de Leon[XXIII]
(Moshe ben Shem-Tov) of Spain circa the late 13th and early 14th
Centuries A.D. The Kabala is comprised primarily (though not exclusively) of
the material contained in the aforementioned texts.
the sum of the literature of the Kabala is both extensive and complex, the
concepts which are of primary interest to us in this article are those
concerning the Tree of Life (or Sephiroth), and Adam Kadmon (Primordial Man).
The Tetragrammaton is the four-lettered
Name of G_d, which is written in Hebrew characters as Yod, Heh, Vav, Heh (יהוה)
and which is traditionally pronounced as either Jehovah or Yahweh in its English
In ancient Hebrew history, the Tetragrammaton was forbidden to be uttered
except by the High Priest in the Temple of Jerusalem on certain Holy days. The
Temple of Jerusalem has not existed for centuries, and since that time the Name
has not been spoken during religious ritual by Jews[XXV].
Because Hebraic characters were originally written without vowel markings (and
appeared only as consonants) the correct Hebraic pronunciation of the
Tetragrammaton is believed to have been lost. When reading the Hebraic
scriptures, a substitute for the Ineffable Name, such as "Adonai" (meaning
"Lord") is pronounced instead.
initially encounter the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Scriptures in Genesis 2:4
and 2:16 in which Moses wrote the name of God using the four Hebrew characters
Yod, Heh, Vav, Heh (יהוה).
The earliest extant document fragments[XXVI]
in which the Tetragrammaton appears is portion of Column 19 of the Psalms Scroll
(Tehilim) from Qumran Cave 11 (circa 200 B.C to 68 A.D.).
Tetragrammaton occurs 6,961 times in the original-language version of the Hebrew
Scriptures. The later pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton as "Jehovah" is
believed to have stemmed[XXVII]
from the practice of Masoretic Jews who combined the vowel sounds found in the
name Adonai and Elohim with the consonants of the Tetragrammaton to obtain an
approximation for the Divine name (Yehowah and Yehowih). This resulted in the
Latinized form "Jehovah". The first recorded use of this form dates from its use
by the Spanish monk Raymundus Martini in his Pugeo Fidei (circa 1270.A.D.).
Septuagint, which provided a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures was
widely distributed to both Jewish and Christian readers in the early Christian
period. The translation work for the Septuagint began in approximately 280 B.C.
and the books of the Law were probably completed by 180 B.C. The translation of
the entire Hebrew Scriptures was completed near the second century A.D.
Interestingly, in the Septuagint the Tetragrammaton was generally used in copies
which were intended for Jewish readers whereas the Septuagint which was
circulated in the Gentile world used the Greek word Kyrios (Kurios) as a
translation of the divine name. By contrast, the Christian Greek Scriptures were
written between 41 A.D. (Matthew) and 98 A.D. (the Gospel of John).
Both Jesus and the later Christian Scripture writers extensively quoted the
Septuagint which was likely the first Bible used by early Christians. It would
therefore be entirely natural to find early Christians with a familiarity of the
Tetragrammaton, even in the form of the Kyrios.
Tetragrammaton has significant Cabalistic meaning beyond its representation as
the Ineffable Name. For example (Figure 1), the Yod is taken to represent the
element fire, Heh (prime) is water, Vav is air, and Heh (final) represents the
element earth. Additionally, each of the Four Worlds[XXVIII]
of the Sephiroth (Tree of Life) is represented by a letter of the
Tetragrammaton. Atziluth, the World of Emanations or Archetypal World coresponds
to the letter Yod of the Tetragrammaton; Briah, the World of Creation is the
World of Archangels and corresponds to the letter Heh of the Tetragrammaton;
Yetzirah is the World of Formation and is the World of Angels and corresponds to
the letter Vav of the Tetragrammaton; and Asiyah, or the Material World, which
is the World of Action, corresponds to the final letter Heh of the
Tetragrammaton. It might be added, as a point of reference for later discussions
that the symbol of the Cross is often considered by Cabalists to be associated
with the Tetragrammaton, with each of the arms of the cross representing one of
the four elements fire, air, water, and earth.
The Pentagrammaton or "fivefold word" is an adaptation of the
Tetragrammaton in which an additional character (Shin) has been added (Yod, Heh,
Shin, Vav, Heh or יה
ש וה), and which represents
the Hebrew name of Jesus (generally taken to be "Yeheshuah" or "YahShuah").
According to the Encyclopedia[XXIX]:
"Yahshuah is a form of the HebrewHebrew (, 'Ivrit)
is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than
seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. In
Israel, it is the de facto language of the state and the people, as well as
being one of the two official languages (together with Arabic), and it is spoken
by a majority of the population. The core of the Tanach (the Hebrew Bible ) is
written in Classical Hebrew, and much of its present ...Hebrew
name of Jesus produced by mystical speculation at various periods of history,
but which is rejected by mainstream linguistics and textual scholarship in the
field of ancient languages. The essential idea is of an alphabetic consonantal
framework Y-H-Sh-W-H, which can be supplied with vowels in various ways. (Also,
the "W" can be converted into a "U", since the Hebrew letter
writes either a [w] consonant sound - later on pronounced [v] - or a long [u]
As can be seen by this definition, the linguistic correctness of the
use of "Yeshuah" as a representation of the name of Jesus is disputed. This is
largely because in the Hebrew language there is Ketiv (what is to be written)
and there is also Qere (what is to be read), or that which is to be understood[XXX].
Both have to be done correctly for the word or name to be proper. Since the
Hebrew language has evolved over time and region[XXXI],
the arguments both for and against the correctness of the form of Jesus' name
Regardless of the controversy, it
is fact that no later than 1486 A.D. the use of the Pentagrammaton to signify
the name of Jesus was in widespread use among Cabbalists such as Giovanni Pico
who published "Seventy-Two Conclusions on the Cabala". In his fourteenth
conclusion Pico argued that the name of Jesus could be obtained by the inclusion
of the letter Shin in the Tetragrammaton.
Brother P.G. Maxwell-Stuart[XXXIII]
in his discussion of Reuchlin's
De Ver"bo Mirifico"
Pentagrammaton is the means by which man achieves all knowledge and shares in
the life of the divinity; and in that sharing, wonderful powers are conferred on
him, so that he can carry
out extraordinary deeds. This name has brought back to life, cured them of
sickness, and freed them of evil demons, over whom the divine name has
especially great powers. It has changed rivers to wine, brought food to the
hungry, made waters recede at times of earthquake and flood, repulsed pirates,
and even tamed camels. It protected Paul from snakes on Malta, gave Sylvester
and Philip power over dragons, and, in the struggle between St. John and Kynops,
the leader of the Magi, on the island of Patmos, enabled John to prevail over
wicked spirits and demonstrated the superior power of the Name over all demonic
The significance of the inclusion of the letter Shin in the
Tetragrammaton is profound. Not only does it provide the required "Sh" sound;
the letter Shin also signifies "spirit" and it's inclusion represents the
descent of Shekinah, or the Holy Spirit in the person of Jesus[XXXIV].
Renaissance Occultist Jakob Bohme[XXXV]
produced a representation of the Pentagrammaton associated with the
Tetragrammaton and arranged as a Pythagorean Tetractys (Figure 2) in his
Calendarium Naturale Magicum or "Magical Calendar" (circa 1582 A.D.). This is
believed to be the first diagram depicting the Pentagrammaton ever published.
In Figure 2, the
Tetragrammaton, or four-lettered Name of God, arranged as a Pythagorean
Tetractys within the inverted human heart[XXXVI].
Beneath, the name Jehovah is shown transformed into Jehoshua by the
interpolation of the Hebrew letter Shin. In the first book of his Libri
Apologetici, Jakob Bohme describes the meaning of this symbol:
"For we men have one book in
common which points to God. Each has it within himself, which is the priceless
Name of God. Its letters are the flames of His love, which He out of His heart
in the priceless Name of Jesus has revealed in us. Read these letters in your
hearts and spirits and you have books enough. All the writings of the children
direct you unto that one book, for therein lie all the treasures of wisdom. This
book is Christ in you."
who conceived of the name of Jesus being contained within the Ineffable Name may
have based their belief upon New Testament Scripture. There are a number of
which hint at the concept; including:
Hebrews 1:4 -The Son inherited a more excellent name
12:13 - Blessed is He who comes in the Name of the Lord
17:6-26 - Jesus manifested the Fathers name while here on earth.
5:4 - I am come in my Fathers name
Naturally, each of these verses could be considered either as a literal
statement or as a metaphor. The general view of Mysticism is that the Bible may
be literal, metaphoric, or poetic in its intended meaning. Assuming these verses
allude to the name of Jesus as being fused with the Tetragrammaton, they would
qualify as a sort of scriptural double entendre.
Pentagrammaton is also the basis for the Occult symbol, known as the Pentagram
(Figure 3). Note that in the Pentagram, each of the five points of the star may
be visualized to represent a letter of the Pentagrammaton, and therefore
represent the four elements plus spirit, which signifies that Spirit rules over
The pentagram also is closely associated with the so called "Divine Ratio" or
Phi (Φ). The Greek letter Phi (Φ) is also the letter of harmony and
reconciliation. What is depicted Cabalistically with the letter name JHShVH is
identical to the concept depicted graphically with the circled cross[XXXIX].
The Circle is the Spirit, corresponding to Shin, and the Cross represents the
elements corresponding to the other four letters.
studying Figure 3, the reader will no doubt notice the similarity of the
Pentagram and the human body - the resemblance to the two legs, two arms, and
head of the human figure. While there are specific esoteric parallels between
the human form and the Pentagram, it is another, far more ancient resemblance
between the form of man and the Pentagrammaton which I would like to discuss.
Sepher Yetzirah explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the
manipulation of the sacred letters which form the names of God. A review of
Figure 1 will confirm that the Tetragrammnaton is conceptually related to the
Tree of Life, or Sephiroth, which is a diagram of Creation. In addition to the
concept of the Four Worlds, the Tetragrammaton modified to assume a different
symbolism (Figure 4) is taken to represent Adam Kadmon, the prototype of created
man. The head of Adam Kadmon is formed by Yod, the arms and sternum by Heh, the
torso by Vav, and the hips and legs by the final Heh.
that in Figure 4 each Hebrew Character constituting the Tetragrammaton has been
arranged to form the likeness of the human figure. Note further that each
character in the Adam Kadmon retains its elemental symbolism, and its symbolism
concerning its relationship to the Four Worlds.
The figure and concept of Adam Kadmon makes sense only in relation
to the diagram of the Sephiroth, or Tree of Life, and the explanation of the
Creation given in the Sepher Yetzirah. Because of the complexity and length of
the account, only a brief synopsis can be offered here. It is believed however
that this will serve to provide a basic understanding. In order to keep my
explanation brief, many readers, familiar with the Mystical Hebrew concept of
Creation will find my explanation too general; others (such as Lurianic
Cabalists) may take exception to many of my points. To these readers I ask for
your tolerance, and consideration of my purpose here.
The term "Adam Kadmon" is first found in Sod Yediat ha-Meẓiut, an
early 13th-century Cabbalistic treatise[XLI].
The early Kabala speaks of adam elyon ("supreme man"; in the Zohar the
corresponding Aramaic is adam di-l'ela or adam ila'ah). In Hebrew Mysticism the
Deity is portrayed as the Ain Soph (meaning "Endless"). The Ain Soph is the
Great Unknowable Entity, which possesses negative existence (which does not mean
that He does not exist). The Ain Soph created the universe by the process known
as "Tsimtsum", contracting Himself to form a void into which the universe was
Adam Kadmon (supernal, primordial, or prototypical man) was the first
manifestation of divine existence, and filled the entire universe. Initially
Adam Kadmon, a completely spiritual being, formed as ten concentric circles,
followed by the form of a human[XLIII]
(more properly said, humans were created in the shape of Adam Kadmon). Because
the Ain Soph is unknowable, Adam Kadmon is considered to be the first
manifestation of G_d which can be perceived. When visualizing the human form of
Adam Kadmon, it is often useful to draw the analogy of the figural forms
ascribed to the constellations. The constellations only resemble an animal or
mythical hero, etc. when the stars constituting the constellation are connected
by lines. Even then the shape formed is rudimentary. Bear in mind that Adam
Kadmon is a cosmic metaphor and that an actual cosmic creation in the exact
shape of a human does not exist. One of the key points in Cabbalistic theory[XLIV]
is that the ten Sephiroth are contained within Adam Kadmon (see Figure 5). All
Divine light (Ain Soph Aur) must pass through Adam Kadmon, via the Sephiroth, in
the course of being emanated into the Four Worlds. Adam Kadmon therefore, is not
only a primordial being but also a Cosmic boundary which contains the very
forces of existence. To summarize this portion of the Creation process, the Ain
Soph creates Adam Kadmon, and the remainder of Creation emanates from Adam
Kadmon. Adam Kadmon represents an anthropomorphic manifestation of G-d, a male
deity assuming the features and shape subsedquently identified with those of a
human being. He may be viewed as a cosmic interface between G_d and Creation.
Scholars consider that the concept of Adam Kadmon may have been derived from the
earlier work of Philo, who hypothesizes a heavenly man who was created prior to
the Adam of Genesis.
The Divine Light (Ain Soph Aur) which passes through the Sephiroth
is said to be emitted from the openings and apertures of the skull (eyes,
nostrils, ears, and mouth) of Adam Kadmon (it has also been claimed that the
light of Adam Kadmon issues from his mouth, his navel, and his phallus). Light
also issues from the Forehead of Adam Kadmon, some of which takes the form of
letters and words in the Torah. As the Divine light passes in a zig-zag path
through the Sephiroth, the light becomes progressively more dense, and the Four
Worlds are created, culminating with the World of Assiah (or physical
existence). It is into this world that the Adams of Genesis (yes, plural Adams)
are eventually delivered. In Genesis 1: 26 it is written:
G-d said, Let us make man in our in our image, after our likeness.."
Cabalists view this to refer to the creation of a second Adam who came into
existence in the world of Briah. (When Genesis 1:26 tells us that man was
created in the image of God, it means the image of Adam Kadmon, since God, as
Ain Soph has no form or image. The earthly Adam of Genesis was therefore created
in the image of Adam Kadmon).
then, in Genesis 2:7 is written:
the Lord G_d formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul".
Cabalists believe Genesis 2:7 indicates the formation of a third
Adam in the World of Yetsirah. The fall of man, or fall of Adam, refers to the
Adam of Yetsirah who, along with Eve, descended into the World of Assiah. In
this scheme Adam Kadmon, is considered to exist within the World of Atziluth.
Like Adam Kadmon, the Adam of Briah is Androgenous (Gen. 1:27 "Male and female
created He them")
To summarize the discussion to this point, the Divine and Endless
Light propagates through the tree of life, bringing four worlds into existence.
Each world is connected to and affects the worlds above and below. After the
formation of the worlds (of which Adam Kadmon inhabits the first) are then
populated with Adams themselves, with the final World inhabited by that Adam who
has fallen from Grace. Each Adam is created in the likeness of Adam Kadmon, the
manifestation of the Divine. Each human being, created since the beginning, is a
sort of Cosmic Hologram, each of them containing the likeness of Adam Kadmon.
It is easy to see from this how each of the four worlds relates to
Adam Kadmon, and why the Cabalists represented Adam Kadmon using the Hebrew
characters of the Tetragrammaton as they did. Our story of Adams however is
incomplete. I refer of course to that version of Adam Kadmon formed using the
letters of the Pentagrammaton (Figure 6).
not inconsequential that the position occupied by Shin in Figure 6 is that which
corresponds to the heart of Adam Kadmon. If the position of the Shin in the
Pentagrammaton is projected over the figure of the Tetragrammaton in Figure 5,
it may be seen that the Shin occupies a location directly over the Sephira
Tipareth, which also corresponds to the heart. Tipareth is also the Sephira
traditionally associated with Jesus. The use of the Pentagrammnaton as Adam
Kadmon in this manner signifies the perfection of Jesus.
The representation of the Christian Pentagrammaton as a concept
which has its basis in Hebrew Mysticism is only one example of the great
co-joining of Mystic philosophies found in the tenets of Rosicrucianism. It is
however a very good example of how older, and more highly evolved concepts may
be used to build new traditions. I believe that examples of such fusion are
abundant in the history of humanity, and that modern Religions and cultures
share an incredibly rich ancient heritage; a fact which we frequently suffer the
misfortune of forgetting.
DeQuncey, Thomas. (1824).Historico- Critical Inquiry Into the Origin of the
Rosicrucians and the Free-Masons. In London Magazine, January. Retrieved
November 18, 2009
McGinn, Bernard. (1991). The Foundations of Mysticism: Origins to the Fifth
Century. ISBN 0824514041.
mysticism. (2001). In Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster
Incorporated. ISBN-10: 0877797099; ISBN-13: 978-0877797098.
Fanning, Steven.(2001). Mystics of the Christian Tradition. Routledge.
ISBN-10: 0415224683; ISBN-13: 978-0415224680.
DeConick, April D. (2002). What is Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism ? in
Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism Seminar. Marquette University.
Retrieved November 3, 2009 from
Leuba, James H. (1925). Psychology of Religious Mysticism. London: kegan,
Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
Luibheid, Colm. (1987)..Pseudo-Dionysius,
The Complete Works.
Tillich, Paul. (1972). A History of Christian Thought From Its Judaic and
Hellenistic Origins to Existentialism. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.
The Holy Bible, King James Version.
Vicomte Leon De Poncins (1992). Judaism and the Vatican: An Attempt at
Spiritual Subversion. Bloomfield Books. ISBN-10: 0904656225; ISBN-13:
Coudert, Allison P.. "Cabala." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the
Early Modern World. The Gale Group Inc. 2004. Retrieved November 03, 2009
from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404900156.html.
Zohar, iii. 288b. (2002). In Jewish Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 3,
2009 from http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=142&letter=Z.
Coudert, Allison P.. "Cabala." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the
Early Modern World. The Gale Group Inc. 2004. Retrieved November 03, 2009
from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404900156.html.
Williams, Glyn. The History of Kabbalah. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from
Leet, Lorena. (1999). The Secret Doctrine of the Kabbalah: Recovering the
Key to Hebraic Sacred Science. Rochester, Vermont. Inner Traditions
Publishing. ISBN-10: 089281724000; ISBN-13: 978-0892817245.
Hopking, C.J.M. (2001). The Practical Kabbalah Guidebook. New York: Sterling
Publishing.ISBN: 0806931213; ISBN-13: 9780806931210.
Dubov, Nissan David. The Key to Kabbalah. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from
Killian, Greg. (2003.)The Oral Law (Torah Shebaal Peh).Retrieved November
16, 2009 from http://www.betemunah.org/orallaw.html.
Kaplan, Aryeh (trans). Sepher Ha-Bahir: Or the Book of Illumination.
Retrieved November 9, 2009 from
Elior, Rachel, Yudirth Nave, and Arthur Millman. (2007). Jewish Mysticism:
The Infinite Expression of Freedom. Portland, Oregon: Litman Library of
Jewish Civilization. ISBN 1-874774-67-6.
Dubov, Nissan David. The Key to Kabbalah. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from
Ariel, David S. (2005). Kabbalah: The Mystic Quest in Judaism. Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers. ISBN-10: 0742545644; ISBN-13: 978-0742545649.
Vriezen, Th. (1967) The Religion of Ancient Israel, Philadelphia: The
Driver, S.R., (1885). Recent Theories on the Origin and Nature of the
Tetragrammaton. Oxford: Studia Biblica.
Mansoor, Menahem, (1983). The Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids: Baker.
Hoffman, Joel M. (2004). In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew
Language, NYU Press. ISBN 0814736904
MacGregor Mathers. S.L. (2006). The Kabbalah: The Essential Texts From the
Zohar. London: Watkins Publishing. ISBN-10: 1-84293-128-8; ISBN-13:
pentagramatron. (n.d.). Glossary.com. Retrieved October 27, 2009, from
Kelley, Page H. & Mynatt, Daniel S.. (1998). The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia: Introduction and Annotated Glossary. Wm. B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company. ISBN: 978-0-8028-4363-0.
Israel, Josiah. (2009). The Sacred Name of YAH. Retrieved November 13, 2009
Yates, Frances A. (1999). Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition.
Routledge. ISBN-10: 0415220459; ISBN-13: 978-0415220453 .
Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (1987) Retrieved November 13, 2009 from
Israel. (1932). A Garden of Pomegranates an Outline of the Qabalah. New
York: Rider & Company.
Hall, Manly P. (1936). Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic,
Qabalistic, and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy. Los Angeles:
Philosophical Research Society.
Lodgeroom, International. (2008). Retrieved November 13, 2009 from
Holy Bible, King James Version.
Greer, John M. (1997). Circles of Magic: Ritual Magic in the Western
Tradition. St. Paul, Minn. : Llewellyn Publications.
Rose, Emmanuel. (2009). The Rose Cross Ritual. Retrieved November 13, 2009
Regardie, Israel. (1932). A Garden of Pomegranates an Outline of the
Qabalah. New York: Rider & Company.
Adam Kadmon. (2008). Encyclopedia Judaica.The gale group. Retrieved November
14, 2009 from
Schwartz, Howard & Loebel-Fried, Caren. (2004). Tree of Souls: The Mythology
of Judaism. Oxford University Press. ISBN-13: 9780195086799; ISBN:
Drob, Sanford. (2001). The Lurianic Kabballah. Retrieved November 17, 2009
ben Shimon Halevei, Z'ev. (1974). Adam and the Kabbalistic Tree. York Beach,
Maine: Samuel Weiser. ISBN-10: 0877282633; ISBN-13: 978-0877282631