The circumstance has, in my own
judgment, been far too lightly passed over, that the earliest “records” of any
degrees whatsoever, extraneous to the system of ancient Freemasonry, are those
of the ROYAL ORDER, at London...
Robert Freke Gould
Recently, I tried to show why the broadly accepted theory which ascribes the origin
of ‘high degrees’ to French Masons hardly fits with a series of facts, such as
the existence of The Order of Kilwinning or Scotch Heredom, a
masonic Order conferring degrees upon Master Masons in London.
The present paper intends to bring together early documents issued by, or
related to, this little-known Order together with a few factual comments.
We neither know when the Order was
founded nor who founded it. We know it delivered several documents to two
Brethren who had come from The Hague to London in 1750, presumably in order to
be granted a Charter for their Continental masonic body, because one of the two,
a Scots named William Mitchell, brought them back a few years later to Edinburgh
where they are extant. We are inclined to believe that the Order existed at
least since 1741 because two of these documents were signed by the then
Provincial Grand Master “in the Ninth Year” of his charge. And we are sure it
met in London in 1743 since the discovery made in 1926 by Frederick William
Levander who found a meeting of the Order advertised in a non-identified
newspaper in the middle of a collection of press cuttings. Which shows that luck
played an important part in our limited knowledge of the Order’s history and
that with a little more luck, we may still discover more about it.
Early masonic literature about the
Order’s beginnings is scarce : excerpts scattered in books by Thory, Lenning and
one chapter of David Murray Lyon’s (1819-1903) History of the Lodge of
Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel), No. 1 (1873) and twenty pages authored by William
James Hughan (1841-1911)
 in the History of the
Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant
Orders (1891), a collective work of nine hundred pages issued in the United
Monographs devoted to the Order
were first issued in the 20th century.
Among the papers of Robert Strathern Lindsay, an Office-bearer of the Order who
died in 1963, his widow found a manuscript draft of its history up to 1839 and
gave it to the Executive Committee of the Order. The Committee considered “it
was too long, contained many tautologies, and had never been revised by the
author” and asked A.J.B. Milborne (1888-1976) “to undertake the task of editing
the MS. and bringing it into publishable format”.
The result was The Royal Order of Scotland (1970). George Draffen
of Newington (1910-1986) authored a second volume issued in 1977 under the
self-describing title The Royal Order of Scotland. The Second Hundred Years.
The Scottish Rite Journal is published bimonthly by the Supreme Council, 33°, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, Washington, DC.
ORIGIN, SUCCESSIVE NAMES AND INTERMITTENT ACTIVITY OF THE ORDER
In spite of its present name, it
appears unlikely that the Order originated in Scotland. Lyon’s statement “Of the
existence in Scotland of any branch of the Order prior to 1754 there is not a
particle of evidence”
 still holds water. According to
Lindsay, “there does not seem to be any shadow of doubt that the Royal Order’s
birthplace was England”.
The Order went first under the name
of Scotch H—d—m (Heredom), or Ancient and Honourable Order of K—n—g
(Kilwinning). The adjective ‘Royal’ seems to have been adopted shortly after its
establishment in Edinburgh : Laws of the R.L. H.R.D.M. (Royal Heredom)
were approved on 5 January 1767 and, under 26 July 1769, the records of the
Edinburgh Town Council mention “a Petition, of the Governor and other officers
of the Royal Order of Ancient Scots Masonry”.
Grand Secretary William Gibb wrote in a letter from 21 October 1782 :
[...] there are two different
orders of masonry which subsist in Scotland. The one called “The Holy Lodge of
St. John” [...] The other is called the Royal Order of the H.R.D.M. of
Kilwinning or the Royal Order of Scotch Masonry, into which none but Master
masons of the order of St. John can be admitted. This order con(tains) 4 other
degrees of masonry, & was instituted for many great & valuable purposes [...].
Since 1785, the Order received
applications for Charters from abroad. It may be the reason why shortly
afterwards ‘in Scotland’ was appended to its title : the high and honourable
Order of the H-r-d-m of Kilwinning in Scotland,
The Royal Order of the H.R.D.M. of Kilwinning in Scotland.
The present expression The Royal Order of Scotland seems to be first met
 in the Concordat 
the Order entered into with the Supreme Council for Scotland in April 1855.
According to extant documents, the
history of the Order can be divided into three periods :
an English one until 1753,
a Scottish one from 1753 to
1839, including two full lapses (1794-1802 and 1819-1839). In 1786, the Grand
Lodge in Edinburgh warranted a Provincial Grand Lodge in the kingdom of France,
headed in Rouen by Jean Matheus, which created some twenty-five bodies of the
Order in France and overseas until 1811.
A modern one from 1839 to
the present time.
English Period up to the end of 1753
There is no information showing
when the Order was founded. Evidence concerning the English period comes from
two sources only.
Three clippings from
non-identified newspapers advertising meetings of the Order in London in
November 1743, August 1750 and November 1753.
Several documents delivered
in London to William Mitchell, a Scotsman from The Hague,
in July 1750 when appointed Provincial Grand Master of the Order of the
H.R.D.M. throughout the Seven United Provinces (as The Netherlands were then
called). They include a patent, instructions and a book of records. No mention
is made of a ritual. If Mitchell received one, it is not extant any more.
1). The first newspaper’s
The earliest piece of evidence
about the Order is the following announcement which appeared in a newspaper on
26 November 1743 :
The Brethren of the Scotch H——d——m,
or Ancient and Honourable Order of K——n——g, are desir’d to meet the Grand Master
of the said Order, and the rest of his Grand Officers, at the sign of the Swan
in Great Portland-street, near Oxford-Market, on Wednesday next, at Three
o’Clock in the Afternoon precisely, to celebrate the Day. By Order of the Grand
Master, E. W., Grand Sec.
The wording is not indifferent
since it includes the only mention of a “Grand Master of the Order”, likely the
same person as “the Right Honble and Right Worshipl Prince
and Supreme Ruler and Governor of the Great S.N.H.D.R.M. and Grand Master of the
H.R.D.M. of K.L.W.N.N.G.” referred to in the patent delivered to Mitchell some
seven years later by the Provincial Grand Master in S. Britain. The Grand
Master’s and his Grand Officers’ names are unknown. The only clue given by the
announcement relies in the fact that in November 1743 the Order met at The Swan,
Great Portland Street.
It seems to have passed hitherto
unnoticed that one of the Four Old Lodges, that which met in 1717 at the
moved some time before January 1742 to The Swan where it remained until about
Since 1723 it met ‘on every other Wednesday’, since 1729 on ‘the 1st
and 3rd Wednesday’.
Remarkably, the announced meeting of the Order was to take place on 30 November
1743 (Old Style) which was the fifth Wednesday in November.
Two weeks later, on 11 December, a
Chapter of the Order was founded at The Golden Horse Shoe, Cannon Street,
2). The visitors from abroad and
the documents they received
In 1750, two Brethren, William
Mitchell and Jacobus Jonas Kluck, arrived in London from The Hague
and addressed a petition (an undated copy of which was made by the Provincial
Grand Secretary) to the Provincial Grand Master of the Order. Nothing shows how
they had become aware of his existence. It stated that both of them and some
Brethren at The Hague already were members of the Order and wished to receive a
To the Right Worshipful Sir Robert
Relief K.nt of the R:Y:C:S: Provincial Grand Master of the Most
Ancient and Honle. Order of the H.R.D.M. of K.L.W.N.N.G. in So.
Britain, Sir Josh. Heny. Broomott, F.R.D.M. Deputy Gd.
Masr. Sir Willm. P.R.P.T.O.N. and Sir Rich. T.C.T.Y. Grand
Wardens and the rest of the Right Worshl. Grand Officers of the said
There being Divers brethren of the
above most Ancient and Honle. Order of Masons residing at the Hague,
and we whose Names are hereunto subscribed, Brothers of the said Most Ancient
and Honle. Order and residing as above, being Authorised and
Appointed to petition your Worship etc. for the Grant of a Constitution, DO
therefore in the Name of the whole Pray That your Worship etc. will be pleas’d
to Grant us the said Favour by which means we shall be Brought under Your Care
and Direction ; which Favour being Granted us, we shall allways bear a Grateful
Remembrance, and as in Duty bound, will make it our Careful study to be Obedient
to all such good Laws and Rules, as Your Worship etc. shall from time to time
Think proper to Lay us under.
Wm. Mitchell F.D.L.T.Y.
On the strength of “the excellence
of its wording and the knowledge it displayed as to the names and
 of the principal
Office-bearers”, Lindsay disbelieved the terms of Mitchell’s and Kluck’s
petition and was “inclined to guess” that it had been “framed” in London by the
Provincial Secretary of the Order. Mitchell, Kluck and the Brethren from The
Hague “could not possibly have been members of the Order” since “their names as
such were not on the Register of the Order
[...] Therefore as a first step, they were both required to take the two Degrees
of the Order”.
And Lindsay suggested :
They were probably holders of the
French Rose Croix Degree, who wanted a Charter to enhance the working of the
Rose Croix Degree as part of their Lodge system and [...] thought that the
Provincial Grand Lodge of the Order of Heredom of Kilwinning at London, with its
Rosy Cross Degree, could be able to issue to them the type of Charter they
Lindsay’s suggestion appears more
improbable than the possibility that the Brethren at The Hague already were
members of the Order. The earliest mention of the word Rose-Croix in a
masonic context I am aware of, is met with in a French ritual for the
installation of the Master of a Lodge, which bears the date 1754.
The next one, a Rose Croix Certificate said by Kloss to be dated 1 Mai 1757 and
reproduced in facsimile by Jean Eustache Peuvret.
The ritual of Chevalier de l'Aigle du Pélican dit de Rose Croix, included
in the ritual collection of the Marquis de Gages, is probably the oldest extant
manuscript version of the degree.
However the date on the manuscript, 1763, is by thirteen years later than
Mitchell’s arrival in London.
The ‘docket’ or ‘deliverance’
“In compliance with this petition
the Provincial Grand Master [...] gave a deliverance that ‘one brother who has
signed the same do attend me at the house of Brother Lowis, S.N.C.R.T.Y., on
Monday’ the 22nd July 1750, at four o’clock precisely.” wrote Murray Lyon.
Lindsay described the document as : ‘Copy of a docket by R.L.F. “Pro: Gr: Mr. in
S: B.”’ and summarized it thus :
This grants the Prayer of the
Petitioners and orders that “one of the brethren who have signed the same attend
me at the house of Bro. Lewis S.N.C.R.T.Y. the Sign of the Gold Horsehoe in
Cannon Street in Southwark
 on Monday, the twenty-second
day of July instant at Four o’clock in the Afternoon to receive the Pattent etc.
according to customary form in such cases”. This document is dated 10 July A.D.
1750, AMH 5753, and is in the hand of the Provincial Grand Secretary at London.
Mitchell was the one who attended, and from this point Kluck disappears entirely
from the story.
c). The ‘certificate’
The petition was granted, according
to a document (certificate) here reproduced in the version of Murray Lyon :
London, 22d July A.D. 1750, AMH.
5758. I did this day attend at the house of Brother Lowis, S.N.C.R.T.Y., the
sign of the Golden Horse Shoe in Cannon Street, Southwark, and did then and
there constitute the petitioning brethren residing at the Hague into a regular
Chapter in full form, and did constitute and appoint our right worshipful and
highly honoured Brother, William Mitchell, known and distinguished among the
brothers of the Order by the sublime title and characteristick of F.D.L.T.Y.,
and Knight of the R.Y.C.S., to be T.R.S.I., by delivering the pattent and in due
form as usual for the constitution of Chapters in foreign parts, and did, by
virtue of my authority exchange his characteristick and invest him for that of
R.L. (Signed) R.L.F.
The above Petition, Docket and
Certificate, still extant in Edinburgh, are described by Lindsay as ‘copies’.
d). The sealed ‘pattent’
The pattent (its seal and
the fact that it is also termed a copy elsewhere are discussed in Appendix I) is
said by Lindsay to be one “of two single sheets now separate but originally
stitched together by thread down the left-hand side”.
It is worded thus :
SIR ROBERT R. L. F. Knight of the
Order of the R.Y.C.S. Warder of the Tower of R.F.S.M.N.T. Presedent of the
Judges and Councel of the Great S.N.H.D.R.M. and Provincial Grand Master of the
H.R.D.M. of K.L.W.N.N.G. in S.B.: &ca: &ca: &ca.
To Sir WILLIAM R :L :F, Knight of
the Order of the R.Y.C.S.
BY VERTUE of the Authority to ME
(By the Right Honble and Right Worshipl Prince and Supreme
Ruler and Governor of the Great S.N.H.D.R.M. and Grand Master of the H.R.D.M. of
K.L.W.N.N.G.) in this behalf given, I DO hereby grant unto You and rest of the Rt.
Worthy and Worshipl Brothers of the H.R.D.M. residing at the Hague,
FULL POWER and AUTHORITY to hold a Chapter of the Order, at such house as to You
and them shall seem Convenient, so long as You and they shall behave as become
Worthy Brothers of the said Order, with FULL power to Remove the same, from
Place to Place, as Occasion shall Offer, for the Good and Glory of the Society ;
in any part of the Seven United Provinces, You and they Conforming to the
Constitutional Rules Assigned You by the Grand Lodge in London ; AND FURTHER
Know You that for the Good, and promotion of the H.R.D.M. in General
I DO HEREBY EMPOWER You to form as a Grand Lodge of the Order and DO Nominate,
Constitute and Appoint You the said Sir William R. L. F. to be Grand T.R.S.T.A.
to Preside at, Rule over, and Govern the same and the Brethren thereunto
belonging, so long as you shall Act Conformable to the Laws and Rules of the
Grand Lodge in London ; AND I do hereby Grant you Authority to appoint Proper
Officers to Assist You in the execution of the High Office hereby on You
Conferr’d to Consist of the following Number and Denominations, (to wit) One
Deputy Provl Grand Master,
Two Grand Wardens, one Grand Secretary, one Grand Treasurer, one Sword Bearer,
one Banner Bearer, four Grand Stewards, one Grand Marshal, one Deputy Grand
Marshal, one Grand Guarder ; and I DO HEREBY AUTHORIZE and IMPOWER YOU the said
Sir William R. L. F. to take upon Yourself the title of Provincial Grand Master
of the Order of the H.R.D.M. throughout the Seven United Provinces ; and out of
a pure desire for the Glory of this Order and Increasing the Number of Worthy
Brothers I do hereby IMPOWER You to Grant Constitutions of the Order, in any
part within the said Seven United Provinces, and DO APPOINT YOU to Preside
Amongst, Rule over and Govern all such Chapters, and the Brethren thereto
belonging or on them Attendant ; AND FURTHER be it known to all and every the
Brethren, that I hereby Invest You with full Power to Appoint such persons to be
Your Grand Officers, as you shall think are most fit and proper, for each
Respective Post, without asking the Consent or Aprobation, of any Brother of the
Order, whatsoever, Except of Your own Free will You may think proper to pay such
Compliment, to the Brethren ; and FURTHER, I do hereby Invest You with full
power and Authority, to Depose, or Displace from His or their Office or Offices
any such Grand Officer or Officers, as Shall be Guilty of any Indignities to
Your Worship, or to Fine, Mulct or Amerce them, or any or either of them for the
same, without being Obliged to bring them to a Formal Trial, or ask the Consent
or Aprobation of the Brethren for so doing ; Except you shall of Your own will
think proper so to do : AND I do hereby STRICTLY charge, and require of the
Brethren in General, as well Your Grand Officers as others, to Acknowledge, Obey
and put you the said Sir William R. L. F. to Due Worship, as Head Ruler and
Governor, over them, and their Chapters ; and I do hereby Appoint You to hold
Quarterly Meetings for Regulating the Affairs of the Order ; AND FURTHER, I do
Impower You to relinquish, or Resign Your said Office (in case You shall think
proper or be desirous so to do) to any Worthy Qualified Brother of the Order of
the R.Y.C.S. but to no person whatsoever under that Degree ; AND FURTHER, be it
known to the Brethren in Genl that it is not, nor Cannot be, in the
Power of them, to Depose or Displace You, from the High Office hereby on You
Conferr’d ; Except for High and Enormous Crimes, tending to the Scandal or
Detriment of the Order, And not then without bringing You to a Regular Trial,
and an Account of the Proceedings thereon, with the Crime, and sentence of the
Councel ; being first sent to the Grand Lodge at London, for my Approbation ;
and for Every Authority, Priviledge and Power, herein above mentioned this shall
be Your Sufficient Warrant and Pattent.
GIVEN under my Hand and the. .
Seal of my Office at London. .
this twenty-second day of July. .
A. D. 1750, A.M.H. 5753
and in. .
the Ninth Year of my Provincial. .
ENTER’D in the Grand Register By
Command of the Provl Grd
the 22: day of July 1750: 5753.
There is no reason to doubt the
veracity of the above words “in the Ninth Year of my Provincial Grand
Mastership” or of “in the Ninth Year of my Authority” found on the ‘Diploma’
reproduced below, which are the basis for the assumption that the Order was
founded in 1741 at the latest. If the Provincial Grand Master who signed both
documents had not been first in office, the Order could very well have been
founded some years earlier.
e). The ‘Instructions’
On the sheet originally stitched
with the pattent were the following Instructions :
Imprimis. All passing Fees
are Your own Property as Warder of the Tower of R.F.S.M.N.T. therefore You may
Demand the same from all T.R.S.T.A.’s of Chapters under Your Jurisdiction,
(Except you think proper to grant them to the use of any Chapter, by Your
Instructions in Writing Annexed to the T.R.S.T.A.’s Pattent) and they must be
Accountable to You for the same at least Once a Quarter.
2° No T.R.S.T.A. under Your
Jurisdiction is Authorized, or Impower’d to Advance to the Knighthood of the
R.Y.C.S. at their own Chapter or other places, but where Your Self or Your
Deputy is present, Except by Authority first Obtain’d from You or Your Deputy in
Your Absence, According as is set forth in the Laws Established by the Grand
Lodge in London.
3° Whenever your Constitute a
Chapter You must do it by Pattent, and Deliver therewith to the T.R.S.T.A. a
Book of the Records, of the Laws, and Rules, and the Alphabetical List of
Brethren’s Names, &c., with the Classical, and Extra,‘ Characteristicks ; List
of Exclusions, and List of Regular Chapters ; the same as in the Book herewith
to You deliver’d, But you must Observe the Proper Officers of a Chapter are as
Follows, and no more (To wit) The T.R.S.T.A., Deputy T.R.S.T.A., two Guardians
and a Secretary being Five in the whole, and Each Chapter is to Keep a Regular
Entry in such book, of the Names, Places of Abode, Professions, Character and N°
of Class or Extrae of each Advanct Brother,together with the Degrees
of Advancement of Each Brother which they are to produce at the Grand Lodge for
Your Inspection, Four times in each Year if Summon’d so to do, under the
Penalties and Restrictions by Grand Laws Established.
4° Your are to keep a Regular
Entry in Your Own Book (from time to time) from the Books of the Chapters under
Your Jurisdiction, of the Names, places of Abode, professions, Degrees of
Advancement, &c: of Every Brother of the Order throughout the Seven United
Provinces, and You are also to keep a Book in wch You must enter
Duplicates of the Characteristicks belonging to Each Chapter, and the Names of
such Brethren as are Fixed to any of them.
5° Your Chapters should once a
Quarter, or at Least once in a Year, pay in at Your Quarterly Grand Lodge, an
Acknowledgment, to be Lodged in Your Hand or stock, in Your Grand Treasurer’s
hands, for Charitable uses.
6° Your Grand Lodge also, must
(as You would Avoid Censure) make a proper Acknowledgment once a Year at Least,
to the Grand Lodge from whence You hold Your Constitution, on some one of the
Quarterly Grand Lodge Nights, which Remember are allways on the Fifth Sunday in
such Months as have so many.
7° You are not to Admit into
Your Grand Lodge or into any of Your Chapters, any such person who you shall
find on the List of Exclusions, without first having receiv’d Notice from me, or
my Deputy, that he or they have work’d their Restoration, and Given a proper
security for his or their future Good Behaviour, and this You are to Signifie to
Your Chapters that they may Conform to the Same.
8° You are Required (when ever
You send Your Acknowledgments to the Grand Lodge in London) to send a List of
the Names, places, of Abode, professions, Characteristicks, and Degrees of
Advancement of all such persons as Belong to the Society under Your Jurisdictn,
and as are from time to Time Advanced at Your Grand Lodge or the Chapters under
Your Care, and also a list of all Chapters under Your Constitution Expressing
the place and Time of Forming, the time of Constitution, and the T.R.S.T.A.’s
Name ; also an Account of all such persons (if any) who may happen to be
Excluded Vertue of Your Authority ; with the Crimes they Committed to Occasion
such their Exclusion.
9° You are Not to Enter any
Minute or other Laws or Rules in the Book herewith Deliver’d but such as You
shall from time to time Receive from the Grand Lodge in London ; and You are to
be Conformable in Every point to the Laws and Rules in the Book herewh
Deliver’d and to all such as You may from time to time have sent to be with the
others Inserted therein.
10° Whenever You sign any Patent
or other A‘hority, You must write your Christian Name befor the Letters of Your
Characterk on Account of Holding Your Authority from me, and my
Characteristick, being the same as Yours.
By Command of the Provl
Grand Master in London.
f). The sealed ‘diploma’
Mitchell received a further
document which is transcribed in a slightly different way by three Scottish
writers who name it a Diploma or “Deploma”. This is Lindsay’s version :
TO our Trusty, Wellbeloved, and
Right Worshipful and Highly Honour’d Brother Sir William R.L.F. Knt
of the Order of the R.Y.C.S.: Provincial Grand Master of the Seven United
KNOW YE that out of the Great
Esteem and Brotherly Love I bear to You and being well Assured of Your Fidelity,
I do hereby Impower You (with proper Assistance) to Advance to the Order of the
R.Y.C.S. at Your Grand Lodge at the Hague or at any other Chapter to which You
may Grant Constitution in any part of the Seven United Provinces, AND BE IT
FURTHER KNOWN UNTO YOU, that if You are found Guilty of Acting Contrary to my
will and Pleasure, making Breach of any of Your Constitutional Laws, Rules,
Orders or Regulations, Appointed for Your Observance by Authority of the Grand
Lodge where I preside and govern, You will be Render’d for the Future Incapable
of Holding any Grand Office or Authority in the H.R.D.M. and also be Liable to
be Exclude the Society for Contempt and Disobedience.
Given at London, under my hand and
Privy Seal N.A.S.I.
this 22d day of July
1750, A.D. 1750 A.M.H. 5753 R.L.F. (L.S.)
and in the Ninth Year of my
Enter’d in the Grand Register
By Command of the Prol.
this 22d day of July
1750 : 5753.
Lindsay remarks : “The seal is the
same as that on the Patent, but above it is written ‘N.A.S.I.’ and below it
The ‘Records of the H.R.D.M.’
Lastly, Mitchell was given “a thin
 entitled in ink on the outside
of its front cover Records of the H.R.D.M.”.
Besides copies of the petition, of the docket and of the patent stitched with
the Instructions (numbered i-iii in the Records), it included ten further
documents only mentioned by name by Lindsay with the exception of Documents iv,
v, x, xi, xii which are summarized or commented upon but not quoted. Lindsay
merely reproduces the (vi) “List of Regular Chapters according to Seniority.” 
The Manner of
Constituting a New Chapter
[Both Grand Wardens sit in the West, the SGW nearest to the North Column, the
JGW nearest to the South Column].
A List of such as are
Excluded the Society
[two names quoted]
List of Regular Chapters
according to Seniority
[reproduced next page]
Copy of a Citation to a
Brother charged with Crimes.
The Order to be observed
at the solemnizing the Funeral of a Deceas'd
and of Returning from the Grave.
The Proper Titles
belonging to a Prol. Grand Master, a Deputy Prol Grd
Mr and to a
Senior Grd Warden.
Records of the Christian
& Surnames of the Brethren of the H.R.D.M. Belonging to The Hague &
Alphabetically Digested, together with their Places of abode, Degrees of
Advancement and house list to which each Brother's Characteristicks belongs also
The Nine Classical and Additional or Extra Characteristicks of the Grand Chapter
(called the Grand Lodge) and all the Petty Chapters of the Order in the Seven
United Provinces and with a List of the Grand Officers. &c.
Laws, Rules and Orders
establish'd at Grand Lodge for Regulating & Governing the same. Also to be
observed and Obeyed by all T.R.S.T.A.s and Officers of Chapters and the Brethren
belonging thereto or Attendant thereon.
“On a blank page numbered
109 some one has written in red ink ‘The names of Brethren who are members of
the Royal Chapter at Edinburgh’”.
List of the Classical and
Extra Characteristics of the Order.
Lindsay added to the remark he
appended to document xii :
The most interesting thing in the
List is a note in the margin opposite Mitchell’s name as the date of joining the
Order, viz., “In France & England the years 1749 and 1750.” This suggests that
even after he had taken the two degrees of the Order in London,
Mitchell still believed that his French Rose Croix amounted to the same thing,
and therefore, that he was only re-introducing the Rose Croix Degree into
Scotland [which] was unknown in Scotland until about the first decade of the 19th
List of Regular Chapters
according to Seniority.
Seniority Place of
Forming Time of Forming Date of Constitution
the Thistle and Crown
Chandois Street 5th Sunday Immemorial
Thistle and Crown
above 1st Sunday
Welbeck Street 2nd Sunday Immemorial
Exeter Street 4th Sunday
Southwark 3rd Sunday Dec. 11.
Deptford in Kent
Sunday Dec. 20. 1744
the Hague —
Impowered to Act
Grand Lodge 3rd Sunday July 22.
the Colony of Virginia,
Sunday Oct. 12. 1752
William Mitchell in The Hague
Lyon thought that Mitchell had not returned to The Hague from London :
From a report
which in 1843 was prepared at the instance of the Grand Lodge [of the Order], we
find [...] that it is reported as ‘doubtful’ if he [William Mitchell] ever
returned to Holland after obtaining his patent in 1750. That he did not do so,
and that he settled in Scotland, is also evident from the fact that he continued
to act as Grand Master until July 1767.
Which however Lindsay showed to be
Thanks to the information [...]
kindly supplied by Bro. Cruiset van Uchelen, Librarian and Museum Curator to the
Grand Orient of the Netherlands [...] it is now certain that Mitchell returned
to The Hague. His name appears in the Minutes of the first meeting of a new
Lodge of Adoption at The Hague, called La Loge de Juste.
In July 1994, the present writer
asked Bro. Evert Kwaadgras, Archivist, Librarian and Curator to the Grand East
of the Netherlands, if he could ascertain which information his predecessor had
provided Lindsay with. He replied :
Croiset van Uchelen told me that his information to Lindsay was no other than
what the author states himself, viz. that Mitchell
was at The Hague in 1751, since his name appears on documents pertaining to the
lodge of adoption de Juste. Lindsay mentions minutes, in fact a year
account of the lodge, reporting reception of seven florins, one florin each (not
seven each, but seven total; Lindsay is mistaken here) from the founding
members, sept freres, qui ont donné principe a la loge it says. This
happened on 28 January, 1751. The Livre de constitutions, which is extant
in our archives (Portefeuille Adoptieloges, D2, No. 1, 160B) opens with
an act by which the members of the lodge of adoption recognise Joost Gerrit
baron van Wassenaer (1716-1753, Grand Master of the 'regular' masons 1749-52;
Lindsay misspells his name rather badly) as their Grand Master, 1 May, 1751.
Under this act we find Mitchell's signature; the signatures of the Soeurs
under the same leave us in no doubt that this was an adoption lodge, and the
rest of the records confirm this very fully. I include a xerox of the act
When I looked at the copy which
Bro. Kwaadgras was kind enough to send me and which is reproduced above , I doubted that Mitchell’s signature was affixed to its
end, since the last four names on the left as well as the seven ones on the
right appear to have been written by the same hand.
4. Two further newspaper’s
On 1 August 1750, which is ten days
after Mitchell’s appointment, the following announcement appeared in a London
P.G.M. in S.B.
The Brethren of the H.R.D.M. are
desired to take notice, that the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of the Order are
removed from the White Swan in Great Portland-Street, near Oxford-Market, to
Brother Fields, the Thistle and Crown in Chandos-Street, near St. Martin's Lane.
Note, The Grand Chapter meets on the first, and the Grand Lodge on the fifth
Sunday in each Month, at Six in the Evening. By Command of the P.G.M.,
N.B.L.T.Y. Grand Secretary.
It was mentioned before that both
the Old Lodge at the Apple-Tree and the Brethren of the Heredom met at The Swan
since 1742-1743. Grand Lodge Minutes show the Lodge still meeting there in May
1749, but having moved to the Fish and Bell in Charles Street by June 1750.
Could it be more than a coincidence that after going to The Swan at about the
same time, both the Lodge and the Heredom bodies left the same meeting-place
within a matter of weeks ?
The following newspaper
announcement appeared on 17 November 1753 :
On Wednesday next, being the third
Wednesday of the Month, will be held the Grand Chapter of the Order H.R.D.M. at
the Crown and Ball, in Playhouse-Yard, Black-Fryars,
where the Brethren of that Order are desired to attend. Yours, W.S.
It was the last-known manifestation
of the Order in London. We don’t know why.
in Scotland after 1753
The beginnings (1753-1794) of the
Scottish period of the Order’s history nearly coincide with the presence of
William Mitchell in Edinburgh where he died, aged sixty-five, on 17 May 1792. Between 1753 and 1765 he visited several times Lodge Canongate Kilwinning
 in the Minutes of which he is
described on 12 September 1753 as “The Most Worshipful Br. Mitchell Grand Master
of the Seven United provinces and provincial Grand Master from London Kilwinning
over all Europe Brittain excepted in his proper Cloathing and Jewells”.
Four brethren entered into the
Order in Scotland between 1754 and 1762, a further ten in 1763 and about fifty
more until 31 October 1766. From that date, (as yet unpublished) Minutes of a
Chapter of the Order at Edinburgh are extant. Laws of the Royal Heredom
were adopted 5 January 1767 and seventeen Office-bearers were elected on the
following 4th of July.
Scottish historians do not quite agree on the part played by Mitchell in
From a report [...], we find that
Mr. Mitchell sat at various meetings of the Chapter there between 1766 and 1777,
both years inclusive [...] The minutes of the Order between 1754 and 1766 not
having been preserved, if they ever existed, it does not appear whether Mr.
Mitchell attended any earlier meetings; but there is every probability that he
did so, and admitted the earlier Brethren. His name does not appear in the
Edinburgh Directory. (Murray Lyon)
From 31st October 1766 to 4th July
1767, none of the Minutes [of the Order’s Chapter] are signed and William
Mitchell is not recorded amongst those present at the Meetings. Yet there is no
doubt that he was the executive head of the Order in Scotland and of its
Edinburgh Chapter until 4th July 1767, when, on its elevation of itself into the
Grand Lodge of the Order, he retired from all office but continued to attend
occasional meetings up to 23rd February 1787. (Lindsay)
There are no records of William
Mitchell ever having presided at any meeting of the Edinburgh Chapter and it is
consequently impossible to say whether or not he ever held the position of
Deputy Grand Master of the Order. It is unlikely — for, when he did attend, his
presence is recorded as an ordinary member of the Order. (Draffen)
After 4 July 1794, the Order did
not meet until 10 May 1802. It experienced then a state of semi-dormancy – a few
meetings are recorded between 1802 and 1805, three in 1813, a single one on 6
November 1819 – followed with another full lapse until 1839.
Since 1753, the Order had not
created one single body in Scotland but it disseminated abroad. On 6 September
1785, Jean Matheus
 petitioned the Order
requesting a Patent or Charter to erect the Rose Croix Chapter grafted on his
Lodge at Rouen into a Chapter of H.R.D.M. A Council held in Edinburgh on 1 May
 granted his request and approved of a Charter allowing Matheus
“to act as Provincial Grand Master of the Order in France”. The ritual of the
Order was sent to Matheus who translated it in French in 1788.
Several manuscript copies of Matheus’ translation are extant in French libraries
and in the Edinburgh archives.
Until 1811, twenty-seven Chapters
of the Order were founded through Matheus in Paris, in Savoy (Chambéry), on the
territory of the French Empire (Tournai, Courtrai, Livorno) and in the French
colonies (La Martinique and St Domingo).
The eldest Chapter of the Order in Paris, the Chapitre de Heredom de
Kilwinning du Choix, was warranted 4 October 1786. Claude-Antoine Thory was
its Thirsata since 6 November 1807.
A Scottish Freemason, Dr Charles Morison of Greenfield, became a member in 1822
and a Thirsata as well.
since 1839 and its ritual
The Order ‘resuscitated’ in
Edinburgh on 11 November 1839 after a lapse of twenty years. Five members were
summoned, three did not show.
The meeting was attended by Houston Rigg Brown (1776-1857) admitted into the
Order on 10 May 1802 and promoted four days later, and Hamilton Pyper admitted
27 June 1813 and promoted on the following 16 July. Brown had been out of
Edinburgh for a long period and lived in Langley (Buckinghamshire).
During the meeting, Brown handed over various papers and documents connected
with the Order, but “the documents did not include a Ritual”.
In December 1841, Dr George Arnott wrote in a letter : “they were so deplorably
ignorant that when they admitted me [last month] they were obliged to dispense
with all ceremonies except the obligation”.
Shortly afterwards, a ritual was
composed “apparently from the memory of Houston Rigg Brown alone”, which is
known as the ‘1843 ritual’ or ‘Revised Version’.
 Lindsay notes that “the
official reprints of the Ritual down to the present time have been versions of
the 1843 Ritual”.
When Morison died in Paris, 4 May 1849,
his widow bequeathed his library to the (Craft) Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Among many highly valuable manuscripts, it included the ritual used by the
Chapter du Choix in Paris as translated by Matheus. When it was compared
with the ‘Revised Version’ of 1843, it was “wrongly asserted that where the
French Ritual varied from the 1843 Ritual, the French Ritual was inaccurate”,
which should be kept in mind when reading the opinion of Norman Hackney :
I hope to produce evidence that
this [the present Official Ritual, as issued from Edinburgh by Grand Lodge in
1950] is the same as the Original used in London in 1741, and, perhaps a little
earlier [...] All of this means that we may accept it as being reasonably
certain that the Ritual of today is the same as that supplied to William
Mitchell in 1750; and there are strong grounds for believing that this (1750) is
the same as the Original Ritual of the “Royal Order of Heredom of Kilwinning”.
The present paper is especially
meant for Scottish Rite Brethren who may be unaware of the importance of the
Order as one of the earliest system of additional degrees.
It is also of a preliminary
character for a later one in which I intend to discuss the possibility that some
letters which were written in English and received by von Hund in Germany toward
the end of 1753, might have been sent by members of the Order. I shall also
quote from little-known manuscript documents pertaining to the Order’s existence
in the West Indies and in the United States toward the turn of the 19th
Century, which show that the Order may have had some influence upon the early
years of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. And if I feel brave enough, I
may go as far as to tackle the old problem of the Order’s ritual and of the
1. The seals affixed upon the 1750
The Instructions did
not bear the same seal as the Patent and the ‘Diploma’ quoted above.
Both Hughan and Lindsay described the seal affixed upon the latter documents :
The seal on the diploma, or
personal patent, as Prov. G. M., has been destroyed, but on the charter granted
to the Prov. Grand Lodge and Chapter, the seal remains, which, however, is such
a simple affair as not to call for reproduction. The design includes a bridge of
five arches, enlarging towards the centre one and above, — the letter Z is
prominently depicted. The first figure is suggestive of the bridge, with the
letters “L.O.P.,” familiar to members of the 16° of the “Ancient and Accepted
Rite,” and is certainly peculiarly appropriate for the attesting of Royal Order
documents. The presiding officer signed by his characteristic “R.L.F.,” the
words “Provl Grad Masr”
being above, and those of “In So. B.” below the seal. A
fac-simile of this seal may be found in Brother Lyon’s history of the “Lodge
of Edinburgh” (p. 309), and is rather perplexing in character. (Hughan) 
The seal on the Diploma [when
Hughan saw the document, its seal was destroyed] is the same as that on the
Patent but above it is written ‘N.A.S.I.’ and below it ‘President’. The letters
represent the Hebrew word for Prince, which was the title of the President of
the Great Sanhedrim of the Jews.
 [...] This [Seal] consisted of
a hump-backed bridge of five circular arches over a stream of water. Between the
parapet of the bridge over the central arch and the top edge of the zeal was the
letter Z. (Lindsay)
The starting-point of the
mysterious story about the seal attached to the Instructions is described
in a short Lindsay paper, ‘William Mitchell, Provincial Grand Master at The
Hague, 1750’, included in the Report and Historical Survey issued by the
Royal Order in 1960 :
In 1950 Bro. G.S. Draffen, M.B.E.
(the present Senior Grand Warden of The Grand Lodge of the Order) noticed that
one of Mitchell’s London documents of 1750 (a copy) was sealed with armorial
bearings, which were assumed to be those of Sir Robert Relief, granter of the
Charter, and which, if traced, might identify this Provincial Grand Master of
The Order for South Britain, who held that office since 1741. As Sir Robert
Relief was probably English, enquiries were made of The College of Heralds in
London. In 1951 Portcullis
 declared, most unexpectedly,
that the armorial bearings were those of the Scottish family of Livingston of
Parkhall, just over the border of Stirlingshire from Linlithgow. From this it
appeared possible that William Mitchell might have supplied his ring to
reproduce on the copy document a seal which had been appended to the original.
If so, what was the connection between Mitchell and the family of Livingston of
Parkhall, which has a genealogy going back to 1381 ?
Lindsay then described the
genealogy of the Livingston family – which, as far as Mitchells are concerned,
begins when Alexander Mitchell married Alison Livingston of Parkhall in 1713 and
became a son christened William born about 1716 who died unmarried in 1774 – and
ended by suggesting that the William Mitchell who came to London in 1750 “was
probably the son of William (Livingston) Mitchell, born ‘on the wrong side of
When Lindsay’s book edited by
Milborne was issued in 1972, all the information it included about that seal
To what intent is not clear; but
attached to the bottom left hand corner of the Instructions is a short length of
pink silk ribbon bearing a red wax seal. At the request of Bro. G. S. Draffen,
the seal was examined by Portcullis of the College of Heralds in England, and he
identified its armorial bearings as being those of Livingstone of Parkhall.
In a footnote Milborne, as Editor,
added an ominous remark :
The author refers to the wholly
suppositious connection of William Mitchell with the Livingstone family, which
he more particularly set out in the Royal Order’s Report and Historical
Survey for 1960. [...] Recent investigation shows clearly that William
Mitchell, Teacher of French, died [...] on 17th May 1792 aged 65
years. [...] He was, therefore born in 1727 which effectively disposes of the
suggestion that his father was William (Livingstone) Mitchell. [...] No
explanation has been found for the possession or use of the seal. The author’s
speculations have therefore been deleted.
Draffen went over the seal question
again in his book issued in 1977, one year after Milborne’s death :
In the original Manuscript of
Lindsay’s Royal Order of Scotland the author dealt at some length with
William’s Mitchell supposed connection with the family of Livingstone of
[...] Lindsay’s theory was based upon the fact that the red wax seal [...]
attached to the “Instructions” of 1752 [sic !] carries the impression of
the Livingstone family. How that seal came to be used is still unexplained
I fail to understand the reasoning
of all three historians concerned. Why should the seal affixed on the copy of
the Instructions have been in possession of the William Mitchell who came
to London in 1750 (which seems to have been Lindsay’s second idea) ? Why should
it be relevant to stress that there was no family tie between that Mitchell and
the owner of the seal, as Draffen did in 1977 ? Since the Instructions
document – whether a copy or not – is sealed with the arms of the Livingston of
Parkhall, wouldn’t it be simpler to keep by the idea that the Provincial Grand
Master of the Order in London in 1750 belonged to that family and try to
identify him ?
2. The 1777 seal
The previous seal got lost, as
showed by the Minutes of a Chapter Meeting held on 31 January 1777 :
the Chapter Authorized the Grand
Clerk to cause make a new seal for the Order the old one being lost & to get a
Sketch of one made out to be shown to the following Committee for their
Which brings Lindsay to makes the
following comment : “The Minutes do not refer again to this new Seal but it may
be reasonable to suppose that the design of it resembled as closely as possible
that of the old Seal which had been lost”.
c) The 1807 seal
Lindsay then describes the seal
which stays in “the book containing the Ritual and other documents of the
Chapter du Choix at Paris compiled in 1807 for its T.R.S.T.A. Claude Antoine
It shows an equilateral triangle
surrounded by an outer circular margin containing the words “x VIRTUTE ET
SILENTIA x SIGIL.” Within the outer margin, along the outer sides of the
equilateral triangle, reading from left to right and with the third upside down,
are the words “ZEAL SECURES REWARD” with a thistle flower between the two leaves
pointing outwards above the center of each of these three words. Occupying the
whole of the equilateral triangle is a narrow battlemented tower of three
storeys, having on its top a pillar ending on a globe on which rests an open
book. The tower rests on a wider base of Mason work forming a lower apartment
with a door in the centre. On the left, sun sideways on, a flight of steps leads
up to the left hand base of the tower. On the right, in the background, and at
right angles to the apartment on which the tower proper rests, is a bridge
across a stream. The bridge ends after two rounded arches, above the second of
which is a raised draw-bridge.
d) The 1797 seal
I doubt however that the seal of
1807 was identical with the new seal made in 1777 : in The American Addenda
to Gould’s History of Freemasonry, Charles T. McClenachan quotes the
following from an old manuscript in the Carson Collection and had the good idea
to reproduce that seal he found in it (reproduced below) :
3 December 1797, at New York City,
was founded a Sovereign Chapter of Rose Croix of Harodim of Kilwinning in
Scotland, under the distinctive title of ‘La Triple Union,’ by Illustrious Bro.
Huet La Chelle (Wisdom), Grand Provincial Master, from the Petit Goave St.
Domingo, under the old Scottish Rite of Heredom of Kilwinning, and the auspices
of the Provincial Grand Royal Scottish Lodge of Kilwinning of Edinburgh (the
Royal order of Robert Bruce of Scotland), sitting at Rouen in Normandy,
established there by Edinburgh, on the first day of May, 1786. [...]
This organization had no connection
whatever with the Sublime Masonry of the Rite of Perfection of twenty-five
degrees, or with the Ancient and Accepted Rite. [...] Its ritualistic ceremonies
were entirely different from those of the Rose Croix, eighteenth degree [...] It
had a a particular seal as follows: A square castle with battlements, flanked by
four turrets, surrounded with a moat. The draw-bridge down, the portcullis
raised. To the right a sun.
Exergue: Virtute et Silentio.
lodges founded in Edinburgh until 1751
1. 1598 (before). Lodge
of Edinburgh (Mary’s Chapel). Present N° 1.
2. 1677. Canongate
Kilwinning. Planted in Edinburgh by the Lodge of Kilwinning. Present N° 2.
1.1. 1688. Canongate and
Leith, Leith and Canongate. Founded by members who separated from the Lodge
of Edinburgh (Mary’s Chapel). Present N° 5.
1.2. 1709. Journeymen
Masons. Founded by members who separated from the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary’s
Chapel). Present N° 8.
3. 1729, 14 February.
Kilwinning Scots Arms. Earliest speculative Lodge in Edinburgh (expulsed
4. 1734, 4 December.
Holyrood House. May 1761 took the name St. Luke’s. Present N° 44.
2.1. 1736. Kilwinning
Leith. Founded by members who separated from Canongate Kilwinning (extinct
2.1.1. 1738, March.
Canongate Kilwinning from Leith. An offshoot from Kilwinning Leith. 1764
took the name St. David. Present N° 36.
1.1.1. 1741, 15 May.
[Admiral] Vernon Kilwinning. Founded by members from Canongate and Leith,
Leith and Canongate. Took the name St Giles (dissolved in 1779).
5. 1745, 2 April. Scots
Lodge in the Canongate. ~1760, took the name St. Andrew’s. Present N°
1.1.2. 1751, August.
Thistle Lodge. Founded by members from Canongate and Leith, Leith and
Canongate (extinct 1823).
1. The Petition
Lindsay 1972: 48
« The petition was
granted [...] and the Prov. G. L. etc. was duly constituted on
Certification of Mr.
Mitchell’s installation was made in the following terms :—
Copy of a Certificate
July 22, 1750, at
London, according to the following
“London, 22d July A.D.
1750, AMH. 5758.
of July A.D. 1750 AMH 5753”
Certificate, which I
from the official Register :—
The Certificate is
signed by the Provincial Grand Master at London, and certifies
“I did this day attend
at the house of Brother Lewis, S.N.C.R.T.Y., the sign of the Golden
Horse Shoe, in Cannon Street, in Southwark,
I did this day attend at
the house of Brother Lowis, S.N.C.R.T.Y., the sign of the Golden
Horse Shoe in Cannon Street, Southwark,
“that on this day he had
attended at the house of Brother Lewis, S.N.C.R.T.Y. the sign of The
Golden Horse Shoe in Cannon Street, Southwark,”
and did then and there
constitute the following brethren residing at the Hague, into
a regular Chapter in full form,
and did then and there
constitute the petitioning brethren residing at the Hague into a
regular Chapter in full form,
and that he had there
constituted “the Petitioning Brethren residing at the Hague into a
Regular Chapter in full form ;
and did constitute and
appoint our Right Worshipful and highly honored Brother William
Mitchell, known and distinguished among the Brethren of the Order by
the sublime title and characteristic F.D.L.T.Y., and Knight of the
R.Y.C.S., etc., T.R.S.T.A.,
and did constitute and
appoint our right worshipful and highly honoured Brother, William
Mitchell, known and distinguished among the brothers of the Order by
the sublime title and characteristick of F.D.L.T.Y., and Knight of
the R.Y.C.S., to be T.R.S.I.,
that he did Constitute
and Appoint our R:Worshl. and Highly Hond.
Brother Wm. Mitchel Known and Distinguished among the Brethren of
this Order, by the Sublime Title and Characteristic of F.D.L.T.Y.
and Knt. of the R.Y.C.S. to be T.R.S.T.A
by delivering the
patent, etc., in due form, as usual, for the constitution of
Chapters in foreign parts,
by delivering the
pattent and in due form as usual for the constitution of Chapters in
by delivering the Patent
etc. in Due form as usual for the Constituting of Chapters in
and did, by virtue of my
authority, exchange his characteristic, etc., for that of R.L.F.” »
and did, by virtue of my
authority exchange his characteristick and invest him for that of
and Did by Vertue of my
Authority Exchange his Characteristic etc. Invest him with that of
the copy signature on it
2. The Diploma
Lyon 1900: 344
Hackney 1966: 75
The Diploma runs thus :
is addressed to :
“To our truly
well-beloved and right worshipful and highly honoured brother Sir
William R.L.F., Knight of the R.Y.C.S., Provincial Grand Master of
the Seven United Provinces.
Wellbeloved, and Right Worshipful and Highly Honoured Brother, Sir
William R.L.F. .... Provincial Grand Master of the Seven United
TO our Trusty,
Wellbeloved, and Right Worshipful and Highly Honour’d Brother Sir
William R.L.F. Knt of the Order of the R.Y.C.S.:
Provincial Grand Master of the Seven United Provinces, &c.
Know ye that out of the
great esteem and brotherly love I bear to you, and being well
assured of your fidelity,
KNOW YE that out of the
Great Esteem and Brotherly Love I bear to You and being well Assured
of Your Fidelity,
I do hereby impower you
(with proper assistance) to advance to the Order of the R.Y.C.S. at
your Grand Lodge at the Hague, or at any other Chapter to which You
may grant constitution in any part of the Seven United Provinces.
It empowers the said Sir
William R.L.F. to “Advance to the Order of R.Y.C.S. at your Grand
Lodge at the Hague” ....
I do hereby Impower You
(with proper Assistance) to Advance to the Order of the R.Y.C.S. at
Your Grand Lodge at the Hague or at any other Chapter to which You
may Grant Constitution in any part of the Seven United Provinces,
And be it further known
unto you, that if you are found guilty of acting contrary to my will
and warns him that if he
is “found guilty of acting contrary to my Will and Pleasure,
AND BE IT FURTHER KNOWN
UNTO YOU, that if You are found Guilty of Acting Contrary to my will
making breach of any of
your constitutional laws, rules, ordinances, and regulations,
appended for your observance by authority of the Grand Lodge where I
preside and govern,
in making any breach of
Your Constitutional Laws .... appointed for your Observance by the
Authority of the Grand Lodge where I preside and govern ....
making Breach of any of
Your Constitutional Laws, Rules, Orders or Regulations, Appointed
for Your Observance by Authority of the Grand Lodge where I preside
you will be rendered for
the future incapable of holding any said office or authority in the
H.R.D.M. and also be liable to be excluded the Society for contempt
liable to be Exclude the
You will be Render’d for
the Future Incapable of Holding any Grand Office or Authority in the
H.R.D.M. and also be Liable to be Exclude the Society for Contempt
This is signed: “R.L.F. under my hand and seal this 22nd day of July
1750, in the ninth year of my authority.”
“Entered in the Grand Register by command of the Prol. Grand Master
this 22nd day of July 1750 / 5753.
Signed : N.B.L.T.Y., Grd. Secy.
Given at London, under
my hand and Priory Seal, this 22d day of July 1750, A.D. 1750, AMH.
5758, and in the ninth year of my authority.”
Given at London, under
my hand and Privy Seal this 22d day of July 1750, A.D.
1750 A.M.H. 5753 and in the Ninth Year of my Authority.”
Enter’d in the Grand
Register By Command of the Prol. Grand Master this 22d
day of July 1750 : 5753.
The seal on the Diploma
bears to be that of the Provincial Grand Master in South Britain.
The seal is the same as
that on the Patent, but above it is written “N.A.S.I.” and below it
1. MAIN SOURCES
James Hughan, ‘The Royal Order of Scotland’, in: Henry Leonard Stillson
& William James Hughan (ed.), History of the Ancient and Honorable
Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant Orders, The
Fraternity Publishing Company: Boston and New York 1891 [829-850].
Masonic Records 1717-1894, M.C. Peck
and Son: Hull 1895 (2nd ed.)
Murray Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel), No. 1,
Tercentenary ed., The Gresham Publishing Co. : London, Glagow and Dublin
1900 [Chapter xxxii, 342-349]. The facsimile of a seal of the Royal
Order is reproduced p. 309 of the 1st edition (1873) but not
in the 1900 edition.
Mackay, ‘Notes on the Royal Order of Scotland’, Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 22 (1909): 59-61.
Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England, 1723-1739.
Illustrated with plates and facsimiles. With Introduction and Notes by
William John Songhurst, Quatuor Coronati Lodge: London 1913 (Quatuor
Coronatorum Antigrapha, Volume X.).
Levander, ‘The "Collectanea" of the Rev. Daniel Lysons, F.R.S., F.S.A.’,
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 29 (1926): 7-100 (26).
Draffen, ‘Early Charters of the Royal Order of Scotland’, Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 62 (1951): 325-326.
Draffen, ‘Some further Notes on the Rite of Seven Degrees in London’,
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 68 (1956): 94-110.
Draffen, 'Some Notes on the Early Records of the Order', in: The
Royal Order of Scotland. Report and Historical Survey. Published by
Grand Secretary with the Authority of the Executive Committee: Edinburgh
Lindsay, 'William Mitchell, Provincial Grand Master at The Hague, 1750’,
in: The Royal Order of Scotland. Report and Historical Survey.
Published by Grand Secretary with the Authority of the Executive
Committee: Edinburgh 1960 [19-25].
Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England 1740-1758.
Edited by J.R. Dashwood from the Notes left by Brother W.J. Songhurst,
W.J. Parrett Ltd.: Margate 1960 (Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha,
Hackney, The Royal Order of Heredom of Kilwinning, 4th
version, printed for private circulation 1966 (1st
unpublished ms version, 1951).
Lindsay, The Royal Order of Scotland, Edited by A. J. B. Milborne
[1st ed. 1970], 2nd ed., Wm. Culross & Son Ltd:
Coupar Angus, Perthshire Scotland 1972. Published with the authority of
the Executive Committee by The Grand Secretary, Dr A. F. Buchan, 94a
George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 3DF, from whom copies may be purchased at
£1.00 post free throughout the world.
Draffen, The Royal Order of Scotland - The Second Hundred Years,
Howie & Seath Ltd.: Edinburgh Scotland 1977. Published with the
authority of the Executive Committee by The Grand Secretary, E. Stuart
Falconer, 78 Queen Street, Edinburgh, EH2 4NF, from whom copies may be
1812. Claude-Antoine Thory,
Histoire du Grand Orient de France, Dufart: Paris. - 1992 Slatkine: Genève,
Facsimile ed., Introduction-Avertissement et Index par Alain Bernheim
[pp. 79-81, 132-139 (letters from 14 October and 11 Dec. 1786), 171-184 (Charter
from 1 May 1786), 338-339 (legends of medals reproduced Plate 2 in the
un-numbered pages at the end of the volume)].
1815. Claude-Antoine Thory, Acta
Latomorum, 2 vol., Dufart: Paris.
1980 Slatkine: Genève-Paris, Facsimile
ed., Présentation de Daniel Ligou, [Vol.
6 (1314), 163 (1785), 169, 170, 174, 179, 215, 229, 231, 246 (1810) - 277, 308,
315n - 317, 335, 337, 344 (names of the four degrees of the Order). – Vol. II:
294 (Brown), 299 (Chabouillé), 303 (Louis Clavel), 310 (Demurdoch [sic]),
325 (George II et George III, Gibb), 327 (Gordon), 331 (Haye), 352 (Mathéus),
356 (Moor), 358 (Murdock)].
Encyclopädie der Freimaurerei, F.A. Brockhaus : Leipzig.
[Vol II (1824), Entries
Loge – Vol.
(1828), Entry Schechinah].
1843. François Timoléon Bègue Clavel,
Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, Pagnerre : Paris.
1844, 3rd ed. & 1987 Facsimile 3rd
ed., Artefact: Paris [398-400].
1878. A.F.A. Woodford, Kenning's
Encyclopedia, George Kenning : London [Entry
Royal Order of Scotland].
1884. William James Hughan,
Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry, especially in relation to the Royal
Arch Degree. 1909 New and Revised Edition, Johnson, Wykes and Co.: Leicester
[92, 137-140, 160].
1891. Edward T. Schulz, ‘The Royal
Order of Heredom of Kilwinning, or Rose Croix de Heredom of Kilwinning’, in:
Henry Leonard Stillson & William James Hughan (ed.), History of the Ancient
and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant Orders,
The Fraternity Publishing Company: Boston and New York 1891 [851-854].
1902. John Yarker, ‘The old
Swalwell Lodge and the Harodim’. Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum 15:
1909. John Yarker, The Arcanes
Schools, William Tait: Belfast [442-446].
1920. Albert F. Calvert, Old
Engraved Lists of Masonic Lodges, Kenning & Son: London.
1923. A. E. Waite, A New
Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, 2 vol., William Rider and Son: London [Entries
Heredom, Royal Order].
1924. E. Fox-Thomas, History of
the Royal Order of Scotland. ["Mr. C. Fox-Thomas gives many interesting
details in his sketch of the history of the Order" (1921 Gould. The Concise
History. Revised edition: 273), "Egbert Fox-Thomas published the first
history of the Order" (Draffen 1977: 62). Also mentioned in Trevor Stewart 1996:
59. The present writer has not seen the book].
1935. R. S. Lindsay. A History
of the Mason Lodge of Holyrood House (St Luke's) N° 44, T. and A. Constable
Ltd at the University Press: Edinburgh [pp. 8-9, 201-207, 467, 519, 541].
1950. Gilbert Colville Shadwell.
The Shadwell-Cameron Manuscript, The Masonic Service Association: Washington
1954. Marius Lepage & George Draffen.
‘L'Ordre Royal d'Ecosse en France’, Le Symbolisme 6/316: 363-378.
1973. Pierre Girard-Augry, ‘Le R\
Chapitre de H.D.M. de Kilwinning sous la dénomination du Choix , Deuxième
Chapitre de l’Ordre en France et le Premier à Paris’, Travaux de Villard de
Honnecourt IX: 30-40.
1974. Pierre Girard-Augry, ‘Le
Chapitre du Choix au 18e siècle (22 janvier 1779-4 mai 1789)’,
Travaux de Villard de Honnecourt X: 112-121.
1991. Neville Cryer. ‘A Fresh Look
at the Harodim’, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 91: 116-155.
1994. Alain Bernheim, Les Débuts de
la Franc-Maçonnerie à Genève et en Suisse, Slatkine: Genève.
1996. Trevor Stewart. ‘The H.R.D.M.
– A fourth visitation to a curious 18th century Masonic phenomenon from the
North East region of England’, Acta Macionica 6: 43-93 (with
contributions of Pierre Noël and Guy Schrans).
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 16 (1903): 52.
See the Bibliography.
Hughan had “made a pilgrimage to Edinburgh in July 1867 in
order (as a member), to examine the records of the Royal Order” for
himself (Hughan 1891: 836).
Editor-in-Chief was Henry Leonard Stillson (1842-1913).
A History of the Royal Order of Scotland was issued in 1924 by
Egbert Fox-Thomas (see Bibliography). In 1960, under the title Report
and Historical Survey, the Royal Order of Scotland issued a pamphlet of
48 pages for private circulation which included two short essays: ‘Some
Notes on the Early Records of the Order’ by George Draffen (9-17) and
‘William Mitchell, Provincial Grand Master at The Hague, 1750’ by R. S.
Lindsay (19-25). The pamphlet was kindly sent to me by the present Grand
Secretary of the Order. Norman Hackney, Deputy P.G.M. East Anglia, had
begun in 1951 to write a history of the Order which went through
successive versions. The last one was printed in 1966 for private
circulation under the title The Royal Order of Heredom of Kilwinning. In
the dedication to Lord Elgin, the author describes his book as
“Historical, Critical, and Rambling Notes”. About one half of its
ninety-nine pages is devoted to the Order’s ritual with long quotes from
the Flather MS.
Introduction to Lindsay 1972.
Lyon 1900: 343. On the same page, Murray Lyon wrote: “The
paternity of the Royal Order is now pretty generally attributed to a
Jacobite knight named Andrew Ramsay, a devoted follower of the
Pretender, and famous as the fabricator of certain rites inaugurated in
France about 1735-40, and through the propagation of which it was hoped
the fallen fortunes of the Stuarts would be retrieved”. Lindsay
dismissed the idea that the Royal Order could have originated in France
(Lindsay 1972: 29-32).
Lindsay 1972: 37. In his review of Lindsay’s book, A. R.
Hewitt does not question the above statement: “It will be a revelation
to many that in spite of its title, the Order is English in origin,
having been founded in London as early as 1741, probably earlier” (Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum 83: 329).
Draffen 1960: 14 & 15. The (unpublished) Laws of 1767 included
“the first specific mention of the King of Scotland as Grand Master of
the Order” (Lindsay 1972: 70).
Draffen 1951: 97. The most interesting remark about the “4 other
degrees”, not mentioned in Lindsay’s MS, was added in the book by
Milborne (Lindsay 1972: 84-85).
Patent granted to Jean Matheus, 1 May 1786 (quoted in English in Thory,
Histoire du Grand Orient de France: 173-177).
Identical wording on both the Certificate sent to Matheus, 11 December
1786 (Lindsay 1972: 95), and on the Patent in favors [sic] of Pierre
Marc Dupuy [...] at Chamberry [sic] dated At Edinburgh the fourth day of
April One thousand seven hundred and Eighty Eight AM 5788 (Archives
Départementales de la Savoie, F12, 65-66, f° 3).
Which is somewhat different from Lindsay’s summary: “The use of
the term ‘The Royal Order of Scotland’ now commonly used to designate
the Order is only found after the present Grand Lodge of the Order was
established in Edinburgh in 1767. Before that the Order was known as the
Heredom of Kilwinning” (Lindsay 1972: 27).
Text quoted in Draffen 1977: 23.
The clippings were discovered by F. W. Levander who published
them in 1916 (F. W. Levander, ‘The “Collectanea” of the Rev. Daniel
Lysons, F.R.S., F.S.A.’, Part II, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 29:
26). Lysons was an English topographer born in 1762 who “possessed an
enormous collection of cuttings from newspapers” (Levander, Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 28: 36).
In Dutch, ‘s Gravenhage or den Haag ; in French, La Haye.
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 29 (1916): 26. Also Lindsay 1972:
 James Anderson
The New Book of Constitutions (1738)
It met previously at the George and Dragon, also in Portland-street,
Oxford Market. About this Lodge’s meeting-places, see Lane 1895: 38 and QCA XII: 15, note
[a], and 53, note [a]. The Lodge stays second on the manuscript Lists of
1723 and 1725. Its Members accepted a "Constitution" from Grand Lodge 27
February 1723, by reason of which it became No. 11 in the enumeration of
1729 (Lane 1895: 38). In 1768, it took the name of Lodge of Fortitude
and in 1818 that of Lodge of Fortitude and Old Cumberland. It is
presently No. 12. Grand Master Anthony Sayer (~1672-1742) stays as a
member in the manuscript lists of 1723, 1725 and 1730 (QCA X: 3,
that time the Lodge met at the Queens’ Head in Knaves Acre.
See engraved Lists of Lodges for 1723, 1725, 1729, 1745, 1764
reproduced in Calvert 1920.
See below the “List of Regular Chapters according to Seniority”
given to Mitchell in 1750. 11 December 1743 (O. S.) was the 2d Sunday of
Both names as given in Lyon 1900: 343 and Lindsay 1972: 7.
However Lindsay writes: “Jonas Kluck (or more properly Jacobus Jonas
Klock)” without an
explanation (Lindsay 1972: 60).
Only the first paragraph of the petition is quoted by Hackney,
however with a different wording: “The Right Worshipful Sir Robert
R.L.F. Knight of the R.Y.C.S.: Provincial Grand Master of the Most
Ancient and Honble. Order of the H.R.D.M. of K.L.W.N.N.G. in So. Brit.,
the Deputy Grand Master, the Grand Wardens and the rest of the Right
Worshl. Grand Officers of the said Order” (Hackney 1966 : 75).
Fully quoted in Lindsay 1972: 47-48. Summarized thus by Murray
Lyon: “In July 1750, William Mitchell, a native of Scotland, and a
teacher of languages at the Hague, and Jonas Kluck, a merchant there,
presented a petition to the Provincial Grand Master in ‘South Britain,’
in which they stated that they and other residents at the Hague were
members of the Order, and craved power to erect a Provincial Grand Lodge
there.” (Lyon 1900: 343-344).
Characteristics represent an idiosyncratic peculiarity of the
Royal Order. Each member receives one at the time of his admission, some
are termed official (attached to office-bearers), others classical or
additional. They are chosen among specific words, such as Relief,
Nobility, Freedom, Fidelity, Sincerity, written in capital letters
followed with a full stop and suppressing all vowels except Y, as showed
on documents reproduced in this paper (R.L.F., N.B.L.T.Y., F.R.D.M.,
F.D.L.T.Y., S.N.C.R.T.Y.). The heading of the tenth document from the
Records of the H.R.D.M., quoted below, show that in 1750 there were
“Nine Classical and Additional or Extra Characteristicks of the Grand
Chapter (called the Grand Lodge)”. That list was unfortunately destroyed
in Edinburgh (Lindsay 1972: 56). Writing words such as H.R.D.M. for
Heredom, K.L.W.N.N.G. for Kilwinning, S.N.H.D.R.M. for Sanhedrim or
R.S.C.S. for Rosy Cross is another peculiarity of the Order.
The wording of the Grand Secretary’s certification at the end of
Mitchell’s patent quoted below shows that a ‘Grand Register’ existed in
1750. Since it is not extant any more, one cannot ascertain if it
included a list of members. The extant Register delivered in London to
Mitchell, opens with Mitchell’s and Kluck’s names merely followed with
those of members entered in Edinburgh some ten years later.
This is nothing but Lindsay’s deduction, unsupported by evidence.
Lindsay 1972: 60-61. In The names of Brethren who are members of
the Royal Chapter at Edinburgh (one of the H.R.D.M. Records mentioned
below), a note opposite Mitchell’s name states he joined the Order “In
France & England the years 1749 and 1750”. This brought Hackney to
write: “Mitchell claimed to have received the Degree of Rose Croix de
Heredom in 1749, presumably in France“ (Hackney 1966: 25). Words to the
same effect were probably included in the 1954 ms version of his essay
which he sent to Draffen (Hackney 1966: 5) who in turn sent it to
Lindsay and resulted in the latter writing: “The only possible
explanation of this is that what he obtained in France in 1749 was the
Ecossais Degree of Rose Croix which he believed was the same thing as
the Royal Order’s Degree of Rosy Cross” (Lindsay 1960: 24). In his book,
Lindsay wrote that “Scotland knew nothing at all about the French Rose
Croix degree until from about 1800...” (Lindsay 1972: 86). However in
1956, Draffen was “pretty certain”, from evidence submitted to him by
Lindsay himself, “that the other degrees to which William Gibb refered
[in his already quoted letter from 21 October 1782] are those of Royal
Arch and Rose Croix” (Draffen 1956: 110).
Steel-Maret 1893-1896, Archives Secrètes de la Franc-Maçonnerie –
Reprint Slatkine: Genève-Paris 1985, p. 27.
document is not extant any more.
Kloss, Geschichte der Freimaurerei in
Peuvret, a member of the Royal Order’ Chapitre du Choix in Paris,
resigned from it on 15 January 1788 (Pierre Girard-Augry 1974: 118) and
died 8 September 1800 (Lenning, Encyclopädie der Freimaurerei, F.A.
Brockhaus: Leipzig 1828, Band III: 96). Also see Thory, Acta
Latomorum (1815), I: 205.
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, FM4 79.
A Chapter of the Order was founded there in December 1743. The
first mention of a Lodge meeting at the Golden Horse Shoe (N° 56, 1729
numeration, founded in 1728) is met with on 29 November 1754 in Grand
Lodge Minutes (QCA XII: 82).
Lyon 1900: 344-345. See the comparison between Murray Lyon’s
version and those of Hughan 1891 and Lindsay 1972 in Appendix III 1.
Lindsay 1972: 47 & 48.
Lyon 1900: 344 and the Poole-revised edition (1951) of Gould’s History
(iv: 219) have 5758 instead of 5753.
Some of the spellings and abbreviations included in the
Instructions and in the Diploma (text reproduced after Lindsay 1972:
42-44 and 45-46) are quaint. See the comparison between his version of
the latter and those of Murray Lyon 1900 and Hackney 1966 in Appendix
III 2. The word ‘Deploma’ is found only in Hackney who stresses the
point that “the spelling and abbreviations are as they appeared in 1750”
in the documents he transcribes (Hackney 1961: 75).
An Index stays at the end of the ledger (Lindsay 1972: 56)
In 1891, Hughan reproduced th
list, adding numbers to it, up to the Chapter founded at Brest in July
1788, which was Nr. 18Hughan 1891:. Presumably, this represents the original state of the
document he saw at Edinburgh, namely the list given to Mitchell in
London and brought by him to Edinburgh, upon which new Chapters were
added until the Order stopped meeting in 1794. In a short paper issued
in 1951, Draffen mentions that “At the conclusion of hostilities the
Provincial Grand Master of France reported (in 1810) that he had issued
a further twelve charters and requested Grand Lodge to homologate his
action.”, a report not mentioned elsewhere, from which Draffen probably
culled sixteen more bodies up to Chapter
founded 1810 at LivourneDraffen 1951. Lindsay
and Draffen added the more recent bodies of the Order up to the time
their respective books were issued (Lindsay 1972: 111-115, Draffen 1977:
“The entries recording [Chapter] No. 8 are in a hand different from that
of the Provincial Grand Secretary at London. They are probably in
Mitchell’s own hand [...]” (Lindsay 1972: 51).
‘White Boar’s Head’ in Hughan 1891: 836.
‘Deptford in Kent’ (Deepford in the older maps) is now a
south-eastern borough of London. About early Lodges in Deptford, see J.
Percy Simpson, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 21: 42.
Accordingly, when Mitchell arrived in London, the Order had not
founded any new body for more than five years.
Only circumstancial evidence is available about the Chapter at
The Hague and that founded in 1752 at Norfolk (Virginia), which was
added on the original list from 1750.
Likely the report submitted by George Arnott Walker Arnott on 21
February 1843 at a meeting of the Order in Edinburgh (see Lindsay 1972:
Lindsay 1972: 61 & note 1.
Letter from 5 September 1994.
Both announcements were first reproduced in Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 29: 26N6.
The 1753 announcement is mentioned but not quoted by Lindsay (Lindsay
1972: 60, 63, 64).
A ‘Modern’ lodge (founded 29 August 1739 as N° 187, became N°
176 one year later) met at the same place from September 1751 till 1777
(QCA XII: 55). It was named Lodge of Sincerity in 1779 (Lane
“Did the Order in England suddenly become extinct, or voluntarily closed
down ?” (Lindsay
See the genealogy of Edinburgh Lodges up to 1751 in Appendix II.
Mitchell’s visits became known to masonic students thanks to
Adam Muir Mackay, a PM of Lodge St David, Nr. 36 (S. C.), who published
a short paper, ‘Notes on the Royal Order of Scotland’, in Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 22 (1909): 59-61. The paper reproduced extracts from
the Minute-Book of his Lodge, originally named Canongate Kilwinning from
Leith (Leith, the port of Edinburgh, was incorporated with the city in
1920), which changed its name into that of St David in 1756. Besides two
Mitchell’s visits in 1753, Mackay records nine further ones in 1754, two
in 1755, one on 9 June 1756 (“first recorded visit to Lodge St. David of
a Deputation of the Royal Order”), then on 19 June 1764 (“We were
visited on this occasion by the Rt Worshipfull Br
Mitchell & a number of Brethren of the Royal Order in plain Clothing”)
and on 18 March 1765 (“we were visited by Br Jas. Ker, and a
considerabler number of the Knights & Brethren of the Royal Order of
Scots Masonry who had all due honours paid them, and returned a proper
acknowledgement therefor to our Lodge”). James Ker, Secretary of Lodge
St. David, is described by Mackay as “Keeper of the Records in Laigh
Paliament Ho”, by Murray Lyon as “Keeper of the Registers, Lauriston“ in
1773 (Lyon 1900: 346-347 & 346n, who always writes the name as
James Ker was elected Deputy Governor of the Order
4 July 1767.
“The earliest recorded minute of election” (Draffen 1977: 111).
Lyon 1900: 346. This is again the Arnott report (see Note 50).
Lindsay 1972: 69.
may explain why Murray Lyon mentions 1777
and Lindsay 1787.
Jean Matheus (27 July 1754-1823), son of J. Daniel Matheus and Anne-Barbe
Müller, was born in Walsheim near Neustadt, Palatinate (not “in German
Switzerland” as asserted in Lindsay 1972: 88). He married Marie-Sophie-Christiane
Rupp in 1784 at Speyer and went to Rouen wheir both their children,
Jean-Daniel and a daughter, were born in 1785 and 1787 (private
communication from Eric Saunier ; also see Saunier’s entry
Mathéus in Encyclopédie de
la Franc-Maçonnerie, La Pochotèque: Paris 2000).
Matheus was WM of Lodge
L’Ardente Amitié in Roeun (see Alain Le Bihan, Loges et Chapitres de la
Grande Loge et du Grand Orient de France (2e moitié du XVIIIe
siècle). Bibliothèque nationale: Paris 1967, pp. 202-203, with
In his last letter to the
Order (20 December 1815), Matheus mentions that his son, a member of the
Grand Chapter at Rouen, is in England and “will be getting in touch with
Edinburgh” (Lindsay 1972: 101).
The date is remarkable since the same one is ascribed to the
Grand Constitutions of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, said in
the Circular throughout the two Hemispheres (Charleston, 4 December
1802) to have been signed by Frederic.
“On 3rd September 1788, Matheus acknowledged receipt of the
‘Grand Lecture,’ and said that he ‘is now going to busy myself in
translating it’” (Lindsay
Thory who was Thirsatha of a Royal Order’s Chapitre du Choix in
Paris, gives a List of the French Chapters of the Order, in which he
omits the Provincial Grand Lodge at Chambéry (Histoire du Grand Orient
de France: 173). A Chapter which does not appear in any published either
,was founded through Chambéry in 1800 at Geneva, then a department
of the French Empire (Bernheim
history of the Chapitre du Choix
after its Minute-Books by
Draffen 1977: 4 & 102. Dr Morison (1780-1849)
the Supreme Council for Scotland in 1848 ,
was born in Scotland and died in Paris. His biography stays at
the head of the Catalogue (1904) of the Library of the Grand Lodge of
Scotland and in George Draffen’s Inaugural paper before Quatuor Coronati
Lodge in 1957 (Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 71: 3-8). istakes
of the 1904 biography stay corrected in Lindsay 1958: 61-69.
“When the Order resumed labour at Edinburgh, only two former
members were left” (Lindsay 1972: 9)(Draffen
Langley lies about 20 miles West from London.
104n. Draffen 1977 :
Not ‘1848’ as in Draffen 1977: 4.
Draffen, Inaugural Address (8 November 1957), Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum 71: 5.
Lindsay 1972: 9.
Hackney 1966: 80 & 83. Nothing shows that Mitchell was supplied
with a ritual.
Lindsay 1972: 41, 45, 46.
Hughan 1891: 839. Hughan adds: “A fac-simile of this seal may be
found in Brother Lyon’s history of the ‘Lodge of Edinburgh’ (p. 309),
and is rather perplexing in character. If the contraction does not mean
Provisional, but Provincial Grand Master, we are face to face with
another difficulty ; for, if ‘Provincial G. M.,’ where, and of what
antiquity, was the governing body ?” Hughan refers to the 1873 ed. of
Murray Lyon’s history. The seal is not reproduced in the Tercentenary
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Portcullis is one of
the four poursuivants of the College of Arms, or Herald’s College, in
Lindsay 1960: 20. Lindsay does not state here that the sealed
document is the Instructions, which he did in his book. In the book
however the Instructions are not termed a copy, whereas other documents
Burke’s Peerage shows that Sir James Livingstone was elevated to the
peerage of Scotland as Viscount Newburgh, 13 September 1647. His
grand-daughter, Charlotte-Maria (1694-1775), married Charles Radcliffe
(1693-1746), Grand Master of Freemasons in the Kingdom of France.
Lindsay 1972: 108-109.
Enoch T. Carson, ‘The History of Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite Masonry in the United States’, in: The American Addenda to Gould’s
History of Freemasonry, John C. Yorston & Company: New York, Cincinnati,
and Chicago 1889, 635-636.
Deploma is spelled three times with an ‘e’ on that page by
Hackney and accordingly can hardly be a misprint.