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ÉTUDES MAÇONNIQUES - MASONIC PAPERS
by W.Bro. ALAIN BERNHEIM 33°
MASONIC AUTHORSThe bad, the good and the ugly [i]
The paper has been delivered at the Second Regular Meeting of Quatuor Coronati Lodge 112 Regular Grand Lodge of Italy. Rome, October 4, 2003
highest, as the lowest, form of criticism is a mode of autobiography
Corneloup and Marius Lepage
In 1963, as I lived in a small
German village and gave some hundred piano recitals a year, I was made a Mason
in a French Lodge working in Germany next to the French border. Two German
Lodges worked in the same town as ours but we never visited them and they
didn’t visit us. As an Entered Apprentice I asked Why ? A white-haired
Brother answered it was difficult to say why and wouldn’t explain any further.
That same year, a gentleman who was
a bit older than I am myself today (he was 75) published the first of seven
masonic books he was to write before his death which fortunately happened
fifteen years later only. His full name was Joannis Corneloup – he never used
his first name which he disliked. The cover of the book described him as a
Honorary Grand Commander of the Grand Collège des Rites - the Supreme
Council of the Grand Orient of France, the masonic body to which I belonged -
and I had no idea what that title meant.
His book came into my hands. Its
first part described accurately and clearly the main lines of English and French
masonic history in the first century of their existence (‘Yesterday’) and
what happened in the 20th C. between 1929 and 1963 (‘Today‘). It
quoted the Basic Principles and explained the meaning of words such as
regularity and recognition. I understood quickly that my own Lodge was neither
regular nor recognized. But most important of all, right at the beginning of the
book, Corneloup stressed the big difference existing between ‘the Order‘ and
‘les Obédiences’, that is, Grand Lodges and Grand Orients throughout
the world. I decided to thank him for the information his book – Universalisme
et Franc-Maçonnerie – had provided me with. He answered by return I
should visit him next time I came to Paris. His short note was the beginning of
a mutual friendship which lasted until his death. He was almost fifty years
older than I was and gifted with a blue-steel cold stare which frightened most
people. On the first page of his book, Corneloup referred to a book entitled :
« L’ORDRE et les Obédiences » by Marius Lepage, which I
Lepage also belonged to the French
Grand Orient. He was famous for having invited the Jesuit Father Riquet to
deliver a conference in his Lodge in Laval in 1961. I never met Lepage in person
but from 1964, we wrote to each other quite a lot until he died in 1972.
Lepage’s is one of the best masonic books I ever read. Its first chapter, Les
Textes, listed nine books from French masonic historians said by him to be
somewhat reliable but rare and mostly out of print. It also enumerated English
historians – Gould, Mackey and Lepage’s friend Bernard Jones – and added :
« I must lay a special emphasis upon the famous – extremely rare –
full series of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum volumes ». Lepage’s praise
was so high that I decided to become a Corresponding Member of QC Lodge
with Quatuor Coronati Lodge (London) and Harry Carr
Until 1975, new members of the
Corresponding Circle (C.C.) were listed every year at the end of each volume of Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum. Mine stays in the middle of some four hundred others,
page 290 of vol. 78 (1965), together with the name of my Lodge and that of the
German city where it was located. The application form didn’t ask for the name
of a Grand Lodge and the Secretary likely believed that since my Lodge was
located in Germany, it belonged to one of the (regular) German Grand Lodges. My
first two contributions to AQC, comments upon Eric
Ward’s and Paul Tunbridge’s papers, appeared in vol. 80 and 81.
1965, QC Lodge changed printers. Some 7,000 odd and sometimes very old
volumes kept by Parretts ‘caused immediate storage problems’ (Colin Dyer)
and were offered for a nominal fee to members of the C.C. I bought every copy I
volume 40 (1927), I discovered a paper by an Irish Brother named Sitwell,
Founder in 1925 of the first French Lodge of Research, St. Claudius N° 21 belonging
to the Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Régulière. Sitwell had
gained access to xviiith
Century French masonic documents which he quoted extensively. Some had been lent
to him by an exiled White Russian named Choumitzky. According to Sitwell,
Choumitzky asserted that these
documents had arrived in Ukraine at the time of the French Revolution of 1789,
were eventually entrusted to him by local masons at the time of the Soviet
Revolution and that he finally brought them back to France. Other documents,
said by Sitwell to come « from the collection of Bro. Sharp, of Bordeaux »,
obviously belonged to the archives of L’Anglaise, the oldest French
Lodge outside Paris, founded in 1732.
paper did not interest the members of Quatuor Coronati Lodge at all.
Besides the WM, two Brethren only thought fit to express some comments, the
Russian scholar Telepneff and the somewhat eccentric Bro. Bullamore. WM
Covey-Crump summed up the atmosphere of the meeting by stating: « Bro.
Sitwell’s subject is unfortunately one which does not make a wide appeal to
Masons; it will be as “caviare to the general” », a fitting quote from
wasn’t caviare to me. After reading Sitwell’s paper, I went to London where
I made the acquaintance of the Secretary of the Lodge, the legendary Harry Carr,
and asked him if, by any chance, unpublished papers by Sitwell (who died in
1931) would be archived in QC’s Library. He scratched his head,
disappeared and came back quickly with some 500 pages of typescript covered with
a thirty years old thin cover of dust. I took a look, ascertained that Sitwell
had used the oldest original Minute Books of L’Anglaise and that his
papers were filled with hitherto unknown facts about early French High Degrees.
Carr was kind enough to have the papers Xeroxed for me and sent them to Germany
a few weeks later.
relationship with QC Lodge was interrupted in January 1970 when I
received a stern letter from Carr : « Dear Bro. Bernheim, we have
received information that although you are apparently attached to perfectly
respectable lodges in Germany [I was not !], you are also a member of the
French Grand Orient. If this is true, we would not be able to keep you on our
Roll of Members and I must ask you to let me have a declaration certified by the
Secretary of your Lodge and stating that you are not in any way involved with
that irregular and unrecognised body. I shall hope to hear from you at your
early convenience. » My straightforward truthful letter was answered
coldly. However, having been regularized two years later, I was reinstated free
of charge as a member of the C.C. and Carr wrote to me : « I am
delighted to hear that you are now within the fold… Needless to say I shall be
most interested to know if you have written any thing suitable for us in the
years when we were divorced ».
I had indeed ‘rediscovered’
documents considered as lost forever by French masonic historians who ignored
the writings of their German and English colleagues. And I had put my hands on a
microfilm reproducing most of the original documents Sitwell had used.
made with the help of Kloss, Gould and Sitwell
A friend of mine, a doctor in
philosophy, told me once : « Alain, you can write whatever you want
about philosophy. But first you must read everything which has been written
about it ». A lesson I tried never to forget. The following shows how
right my friend was.
I began by studying all the AQC
volumes I owned, sought for the books recommended by Lepage, and acquired among
others a good leather-bound original edition of Gould. Since I was interested in
French masonic history, I noticed his foot-note in Chapter xxv, ‘Freemasonry in France’: « It should not
surprise my readers that almost all references are to Kloss’s history, and for
this reason-Every statement of his predecessors has been carefully used and
sifted by that writer, and his successors have been able to add remarkably
little ». I decided to follow Kloss’ and Gould’s tracks.
The two volumes of Kloss’ Geschichte
der Freimaurerei in Frankreich issued in 1852-53 and his Bibliographie
der Freimaurerei issued in 1844 had just been reprinted in Austria. Kloss
(1787-1854) had the good fortune to acquire 188 out of 552 masonic books and
documents from Bro. Lerouge’s private library, which had been offered for sale
in 1835 (Bibliographie, p. X). They allowed him to write a ‘History of
Freemasonry in France’ the accuracy of which, in my opinion, has not yet been
surpassed for the first third of the XIXth C.
My first rediscovery was that of the
full texts of the French General Regulations of 1743 and Statutes of 1755.
According to the French historian Félix Marcy (1881-1963), both texts were
‘missing’ long before 1940 and he quoted short excerpts after authors ‘who
did not show their sources’ (Marcy II: 173). Marcy was wrong: Kloss (I: 52)
wrote that the text of 1743 was fully printed in a German publication of 1836
and according to Gould (History of Freemasonry III: 144, n1), the 1755
Statutes were reproduced in an issue of the London Freemason from 1885. I
ordered photocopies of both publications and at a historical congress organized
in 1967 by the Grand Orient of France, I submitted my windfalls in a
communication published two years later in the Annales Historiques de la Révolution
Française (N° 197: 379-392).
With the help of the invaluable
Sitwell papers, I was able to ascertain many hitherto unknown facts pertaining
to the first Grand Lodge of France. Accompanied by documents which he had fully
transcribed in French, they formed the substance of a paper,
'Contribution à la connaissance de la genèse de la première Grande Loge de
which appeared with proper acknowledgments in Travaux de Villard de
Honnecourt X (1974): 18-99. I wrote in the Introduction : « Ten
years ago, when I began to be interested in the history of our Order, I tried to
ascertain which authors I could trust according to the sole standard of their
respective accuracy. Whenever possible, I tried to find the original documents
they used or those they mentioned, and indeed, I have found quite a few again…
For sure, it is necessary to try and understand the events of the first years
[of Freemasonry in France]. However before risking any hypothesis without
falling into science fiction, one must keep by the facts… ». My position
hasn’t changed since.
I kept looking after the original
documents used by Sitwell and had another windfall. The Supreme Council of the
United States (Northern Masonic Jurisdiction) had created a Historical Committee
which held eleven meetings between 1950 and 1955. Their typewritten Minutes were
not for publication but a friend of mine had received a full set from America
and provided me with a photocopy. One of the 1952 Minutes stated : « the
Committee had the good fortune to acquire from Past Master Irwin Sharp of
London, England, nearly 100 18th Century French Documents … Harold
V. B. Voorhis consummated the acquisition in behalf of Supreme Council…
[Sharp] became a member of the 220-year-old English Lodge L’Anglaise (N° 204)
and once served as its Master… While in Bordeaux he secured from Librarian
Graton (W.M. 1921) of l’Anglaise the MSS … To say that the documents are
priceless is putting it mildly ». Further Minutes showed that in 1954 the
NMJ Historical Committee had sent a full microfilm of the so-called “Sharp
documents” to the French Bibliothèque Nationale in exchange for French
ones they had become as photocopies.
I went to Paris and asked about that
microfilm. It hadn’t interested anyone, it was in a drawer and nobody ever had
a look at it.[ii]
1970, at the time of my short ‘divorce’ from the C.C. of Quatuor Coronati,
I belonged to a French Lodge in Strasbourg with the distinctive title Europa.
It was one of the few Lodges belonging to the French Grand Orient, working the
‘Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite’ Craft degrees, that is, with the
Bible on the altar, the invocation to the GAOTU, and a few other specificities.
It was a gratifying experience to be a member of a Lodge working in the realm of
regularity, though it belonged to an unrecognized masonic body. Through a member
of my Lodge, I met a man whom I consider as the foremost historian of French
Freemasonry in the 20th Century, René Guilly (1921-1992).
most French Brethren, this extraordinary Freemason began his masonic life at the
Grand Orient where he was made a mason in 1951. He demitted in 1964 to affiliate
with the Grande Loge Nationale Française (Opéra), a small body founded
after a split occurred within the GLNF in 1958. On 26 April 1968, he
created a masonic body of his own, the Loge Nationale Française and
shortly afterwards, founded a French masonic quarterly review, Renaissance
Traditionnelle. No masonic review in the world has published so many
important papers and unearthed so many essential unknown documents as Renaissance
Traditionnelle while René was its Director, except maybe Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum during its best years.
Guilly wrote about himself : « I am a traditionalist Freemason. I
acknowledge the traditional and spiritual legitimacy of the Basic Principles
enacted in 1929 by the United Grand Lodge of England. However I contest their
temporal application. I love masonic History and History plain and simple, I try
to become familiar with it and to understand it. For me, it is a safe guide,
which prevents me from using so easy weapons like global anathema and collective
excommunication. True masonic Tradition belongs by no means to the past. It is
fully alive. But such totalitarian ways of behaving definitively belong to the
past and their survival is but the shame of our Order and of specific countries.
They are the negation of every universalism and of every ecumenism.».
and I had much in common. We insisted on getting at original documents, on
publishing them in full and trying to understand what they said without letting
ourselves be influenced by the writings of other historians. My first paper in Renaissance
Traditionnelle, ‘Que savons-nous du Morin de la patente ?’
(What do we know about the Morin of the patent ?) was published in vol. 3.
A dozen further papers followed, two of them belonging to the longest I ever
wrote, 'Le "Bicentenaire" des Grandes Constitutions de 1786: Essai
sur les cinq textes de référence historique du Rite Écossais Ancien et Accepté'
issued in 1986-1987, and 'Et voilà comme on écrit l'histoire...', a
review of Daniel Ligou’s Dictionnaire de
la Franc-Maçonnerie 2nd edition, issued one year later.
1978, I learned through AQC that Freddie Seal-Coon, then a member of the
C.C., had just published An Historical Account of Jamaican Freemasonry.
Since Estienne Morin had met Francken there and died in Kingston in 1771, I
contacted Seal-Coon who suggested I write to Brigadier A.C.F. Jackson (Cosby to
his friends), a PM of QC Lodge, who lived in Jersey.
had transcribed the earliest-known copy of the ‘Great Statutes and
Regulations’ (also known as the ‘Bordeaux Constitutions of 1762’) embedded
in the Francken MS of 1771, which had just been rediscovered in the Library of
the Supreme Council for England and Wales [iv]
and included it in his book, Rose-Croix, which came out in 1980. From the
start, we wrote to each other extensively. Although we knew each other very
little, he was kind enough to add a few friendly words about me at the end of
the Introduction to his book.
few years later, I had side by side on my desk the text of the 1771 Statutes
that Jackson had printed in his book and that of the 1763 Statutes of the Grand
Lodge of France which Groussier had transcribed in July 1929. I realized
suddenly that both texts were nearly identical except for such changes made
necessary if the Statutes referred to a Grand Lodge or to a High Degree body. I
drew the conclusion that the French 1763 Statutes (which we knew Chaillon de
Jonville, General Substitute of the Grand Lodge of France, had sent to Morin in
San Domingo) had been re-written by Morin and used as a basis for the system of
High Degrees he developed in the West Indies before his death. I explained the
above in a paper published in vol. 59 (1984) of Renaissance Traditionnelle
and Jackson wrote one in AQC vol. 97, issued the same year.
the first edition of Rose-Croix was nearly sold out, Lewis Publishers
agreed to print a completely revised edition which would include our new
discoveries. I went to Jersey in October 1985 to discuss a few points with Cosby
and met him then for the first time. Many years a Military Attaché to the
British Embassy in Paris, he was a gentleman in every sense of the word.
Although aged 82, he was fit as a fiddle and extremely kind. During my stay in
Jersey, he suggested I enter the Norman B. Spencer competition organized each
year since 1971 by QC Lodge (he had been the first recipient). I did not
tell him the subject I intended to choose, in case he would sit on the board of
assessors (according to the rules of the competition, contributions are sent
anonymously accompanied with the name of the author in a separate cover).
had introduced me in writing to George Draffen, the then Lieutenant Grand
Commander of the Supreme Council for Scotland. Draffen was an excellent
historian with a great sense of humour, our correspondence was witty, and at his
suggestion I sent him a draft of my paper. While at the hospital, he amended my
style, changed the title from ‘Masonic Dating Codes’ into ‘The Dating of
Masonic Records’ and on Good Friday 1986 sent it back to me expressing his
hope that it would win the Prize. Unfortunately Draffen died six weeks later and
never knew that his hope was fulfilled.
October, I went to London. Cosby took me to the Library of the Supreme Council
of England and Wales and let me see the manuscript of the 1771 Constitutions. He
invited me afterwards for lunch at Great Queen Street, introduced me to some
senior members of the Lodge and brought me to the meeting of QC Lodge
where the £50 cheque for the Prize was handed over to me. Two years later, I
was invited to deliver a paper in the Lodge. According to the rules, I
couldn’t read it myself and Cosby read it at the May 1988 meeting ('Notes on
early Freemasonry in Bordeaux (1732-1769)', AQC
before, my name was put forward by Neville Cryer, the Secretary of the Lodge,
and seconded by Cosby and Seal-Coon (by then a PM of the Lodge) to become a full
member. For reasons which Cosby put down in writing in the 14th
Chapter of his unpublished Memoirs of which I own a copy, it was turned
down by a ‘gang’ of members – Cosby quotes their names and adds: « I
use the word [gang] deliberately » – who made what he describes
as « a deliberate character assassination ». As a consequence, Cosby
sent his resignation from QC Lodge.
1989, a senior member of the Lodge, Cyril Batham, wrote to me : « Have
you considered submitting [again] an entry for the Norman B. Spencer Prize ? ».
I thought it could wait a little. I wrote a few comments on papers read in the
Lodge and a paper about the Mémoire de La Chaussée which was printed in
vol. 104 (1992). Having by then completed a paper about Masonic Catechisms and
Exposures which had a few original lines, I decided to follow Cyril’s
suggestion and re-entered the competition. But warned by my previous experience,
I submitted my paper under an anagrammatic pseudonym, Henri Amblaine. The paper
won the Prize for 1993. When I let the Secretary of the Lodge know that Henri
Amblaine and Alain Bernheim were one and the same person, he did not sound
pleased at all.
Cosby died, 3 January 2000. I wrote a tribute to his
memory which appeared in vol. 112 of AQC and in vol. 10 of Acta
A fundamental idea I would like to
stress for those genuinely interested in historical research is the great
difference between facts and opinions. In many books and papers, both are mixed
up in such a way that a candid reader is not able to sort them out. There is
quite a difference between « We know that ... » - meaning This fact
can be checked and proved - and « I believe that... » - implying
This is my opinion, I am not sure if it is true.
When a masonic writer states a fact,
there are two possibilities only.
I told this to a friend recently and
he commented dryly : « You forget a third possibility : the
author’s own imagination ».
A good example of an unreliable
well-known source is Claude-Antoine Thory (1759-1827) often considered as the
earliest French masonic historian. His anonymous books are easy to read,
especially his Acta Latomorum (2 vol. printed in 1815) but they are
filled with a lot of wrong information recopied by generations of careless
scholars. For instance:
How right was Gould when he wrote:
« That writer … can only make a lame attempt to prove his charges by
tampering with documentary evidence, or by wholesale suppression and perversion »
(History III: 147).
A simple way of verifying an
author’s degree of reliability is to check the accuracy of the dates, quotes
and sources he mentions whenever possible. If what one is able to verify appears
correct, the rest is likely correct too. If not, the reader should draw his own
conclusions. Accordingly - you probably guessed it already - an abundance of
notes, references and footnotes is no guarantee whatsoever for the reliability
of a writer.
In 1991, the French writer Georges
Perec made a wonderful parody of an academic-sounding paper, Cantatrix
written in a hilarious pseudo-scientific English. Alan Sokal, Professor of
Physics at New York University, did better in 1996 : he wrote a paper,
‘Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of
Quantum Gravity’, which he later described as « a parody... a mélange
of truths, half-truths, quarter-truths, falsehoods, non sequiturs, and
syntactically correct sentences that have no meaning whatsoever ».[vii]
His paper however was printed as a straightforward contribution in a highly
respectable American scientific publication, Social
as an influential left-leaning periodical devoted to sociology and the
relatively newly developed field of “cultural studies” ’ (Stefan
« What I feared did happen : they published it, unfortunately »,
commented Sokal dryly. Sokal’s hoax shows that a paper accompanied with heaps
of notes and references can easily dupe erudite readers, unfamiliar with a
A nearly similar case – though an
involuntarily one – happened recently in your sister Lodge in London. A full
member of the Lodge read a paper entitled ‘The Strict Observance’ on 15
No less than 145 endnotes were appended to its printed version. The author was
unanimously praised by his peers,[ix]
one of them laying stress on « the seven and a half pages of notes alone
testifying to the huge amount of research entailed ».[x]
In an article, ‘That
“Strict Observance” Paper’,
reluctantly accepted by the Editor of AQC, I demonstrated one year later
that the greater part of that paper was merely a poor summary of one single book
issued in 1970 out of which the author had recopied most of his notes as well as
his secondary references, acknowledging his main source only once in a while,
and that the rest of his paper had been recopied from masonic encyclopaedias and
dictionaries mentioned in only one half of his celebrated notes.[xi]
Asked by the Editor for a comment, the author chose to answer : « a
detailed, analytic rebuttal of many of Bro. Bernheim’s statements is not
justified, as it would be of little interest for most readers of AQC and
would serve only to confuse the larger issues concerning the Strict Observance ».[xii]
There was a time when each new volume of AQC
was a treasure for every serious scholar of the Craft. That glorious time is
over. Historians like C.C. Adams, Wilhelm Begemann (never elected a full member
although he invented the still valid classification of the Old Charges), Harry
Carr, J.R. Clarke, W.J. Chetwode Crawley, J.R. Dashwood, George Draffen, Lewis
Edwards, W.K. Firminger, R.F. Gould, Ivor Grantham, W.B. Hextall, W.J. Hughan,
Bernard Jones, Douglas Knoop, John Lane, Heron Lepper, Robert James Meekren,
Henry Sadler (who had to wait sixteen years after the publication of ‘Masonic
Facts and Fiction’ to be accepted as a member), W.J. Songhurst, G.W. Speth,
Boris Telepneff, J.E.S. Tuckett, Lionel Vibert and William Wonnacott had one
thing in common: they made masonic research. They did not rehash old papers to
write new ones. Nor would they have capitalized on the fact that many members of
the Lodge are unfamiliar with foreign languages and masonic literature. They
would have been ashamed of contemplating the idea.
Is it more than a coincidence ? At the time AQC
began to decline – a decline, which got worse over the last ten years – René
Guilly issued the first volumes of Renaissance Traditionnelle in Paris.
One year before René died, the first volume of Acta Masonica was issued
in Brussels. One year after his death the first volume of Herodom was
issued in Washington by its present excellent Editor, S. Brent Morris. Is it not
as if an invisible light had passed across the sea and the ocean ? If you
are an earnest masonic scholar not already familiar with these three masonic
publications, take a look at them.
May I end this communication by mentioning the names
of two exceptional living masonic historians.
One is the present Editor of Acta Masonica, the
Belgian Pierre Noël. His latest achievement was to explain the origin of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite’s Craft degrees. In a brilliant paper
issued in vol. 12 (2002) of Acta Masonica, he was first to demonstrate
that they derived directly from the translation of Three Distinct Knocks
issued in London in 1760 !
The other one is the American Art deHoyos, a frequent
contributor to Heredom. Though not yet forty-four years old, he happens
to be the Grand Archivist and Grand Historian of the Supreme Council of the
United States, Southern Jurisdiction. Such a high masonic responsibility has
never been more appropriately fulfilled before. His knowledge of every aspect of
the history and of the rituals of Freemasonry as well as his unusual memory are
simply amazing. In my opinion, he will soon be acknowledged as the greatest
masonic historian of the 21st Century.
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A film by Sergio Leone, known in Italy as : Il buon, il brutto, il
[ii] I told the odyssey of the ‘Sharp Documents’ in the first two Appendixes of a paper issued in AQC 101 (1989) and drew up a ‘Répertoire des Documents Sharp’ issued in Renaissance Traditionnelle 93 (1993): 53-58. Also see my short paper,‘An “Introduction” to the Sharp documents ?’ in AQC 108 (1996).
[iii] « Je suis un Maçon traditionaliste. Je reconnais le bien-fondé spirituel et traditionnel des point essentiels énoncés en 1929 par la Grande Loge Unie d'Angleterre. Mais je conteste l'application temporelle qui en est faite. J'aime l'Histoire maçonnique et l'Histoire tout court, j'essaie de la connaître et de la comprendre. Elle est pour moi un guide sûr et elle m'empêche d'avoir recours à ces armes si faciles de l'anathème global et de l'excommunication collective. La Tradition maçonnique véritable n'appartient nullement au passé. Elle est totalement vivante. Mais ces procédés totalitaires, eux, sont périmés définitivement et leur survivance n'est que la honte de notre Ordre et de certains pays. Ils sont la négation de tout universalisme et de tout oecuménisme. » (Renaissance Traditionnelle No. 11, juillet 1972, p. 214).
[iv] AQC 89 (1977).
[v] See my Introduction-Avertissement to the reprint of La Chaussée’s Mémoire and of Thory’s Histoire de la Fondation du Grand Orient de France, Slatkine 1992, pp. xxvi-xxvii.
Sokal 1996. ‘Transgressing the Boundaries: An Afterword’. In Dissent
43 (4): 93-99.
[viii] Jacques Litvine, ‘The Strict Observance’ (AQC 109: 19-50).
« Erudite work... chorus of gratitude for this fully documented
paper... » (Caywood ibid. 56. Stewart ibid. 52). Michel
Brodsky, a Prestonian Lecturer and Past Master, whom the author thanked « for
his help » and « advice » (ibid. 43, 68), said « Brother
Litvine deserves congratulations » (ibid.
58). The only critical remarks came from Pierre Noël,
a member of the Corresponding Circle.
[x] Seal-Coon (ibid. 59).
[xi] Bernheim, ‘That “Strict Observance” Paper’ (AQC 110 : 192-207).
[xii] AQC 110 : 207.